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PRACTICAL FIELD ECOLOGY

A PROJECT GUIDE

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9781119413226 ::  PRACTICAL FIELD ECOLOGY
ISBN:

9781119413226

EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Edicion:
Páginas:464
Idioma:INGLES
P.V.P.: 53,01 € + 4% IVA = 55,13 €
Dto 5% Ahorras 2,76 €
Importe final iva incl. 52,37 €
PLAZO DE ENTREGA 15 DIAS

LIST OF TABLES XIIILIST OF FIGURES XVLIST OF BOXES XXILIST OF CASE STUDIES XXIIILIST OF PLATES XXVPREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION XXVIIPREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION XXIXACKNOWLEDGEMENTS XXXIABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE XXXV1 PREPARATION 1CHOOSING A TOPIC FOR STUDY 2ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4MONITORING INDIVIDUAL SPECIES AND GROUPS OF SPECIES 4MONITORING SPECIES RICHNESS 5MONITORING POPULATION SIZES AND DENSITY 5MONITORING COMMUNITY STRUCTURE 6MONITORING BEHAVIOUR 6A NOTE OF CAUTION 6CREATING AIMS, OBJECTIVES, AND HYPOTHESES 9REVIEWING THE LITERATURE 9PRIMARY LITERATURE 10SECONDARY LITERATURE 10OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION 11SEARCH TERMS 11READING PAPERS 12PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 12LEGAL ASPECTS 13ETHICAL ISSUES 13HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES 14IMPLEMENTATION 16EQUIPMENT AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT 19FIELD/LABORATORY NOTEBOOK 19PILOT STUDIES 21TIME MANAGEMENT 22STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PROJECT DESIGN 24DESIGNING AND SETTING UP EXPERIMENTS AND SURVEYS 26CHOOSING SAMPLING METHODS 26TYPES OF DATA 27SAMPLING DESIGNS 29PLANNING STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 35DESCRIBING DATA 35ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT DATA 36PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS 37MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS 38EXAMINING PATTERNS AND STRUCTURE IN COMMUNITIES 39SUMMARY 392 MONITORING SITE CHARACTERISTICS 43SITE SELECTION 43SITE CHARACTERISATION 44HABITAT MAPPING 44EXAMINATION OF LANDSCAPE SCALE 54MEASURING MICROCLIMATIC VARIABLES 55MONITORING SUBSTRATES 60MONITORING WATER 64OTHER PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES 67MEASURING BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES 70IDENTIFICATION 763 SAMPLING PLANTS AND OTHER STATIC ORGANISMS 85SAMPLING FOR STATIC ORGANISMS 88SEEDS, FECUNDITY, AND POPULATION DYNAMICS 91QUADRAT SAMPLING 92DENSITY ESTIMATION USING QUADRATS 95FREQUENCY ESTIMATION USING QUADRATS 95COVER ESTIMATION USING QUADRATS 96BIOMASS ESTIMATION WITHIN QUADRATS 97QUADRAT SIZE 99NESTED QUADRATS 100PLACEMENT OF QUADRATS 101QUADRAT SHAPE 102PIN-FRAMES 103TRANSECTS 104PLOTLESS SAMPLING 106DISTRIBUTION OF STATIC ORGANISMS 109FORESTRY TECHNIQUES 110TREE DIAMETER 110TREE BASAL AREA 113HEIGHT OF TREES 113TIMBER VOLUME 114GROWTH 114CANOPY COVER 115AGE AND MORTALITY 1154 SAMPLING MOBILE ORGANISMS 119GENERAL ISSUES 120DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE ORGANISMS 123DIRECT OBSERVATION 124BEHAVIOUR 124INDIRECT METHODS 130CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 130MARKING INDIVIDUALS 133RADIO-TRACKING 136POPULATION DYNAMICS 138INVERTEBRATES 140DIRECT OBSERVATION 141BUTTERFLY CENSUS METHOD 141INDIRECT METHODS 143USING INSECT SOUNDS 143CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 144KILLING AND PRESERVING INVERTEBRATES 145MARKING INDIVIDUALS 145CAPTURING AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES 150NETTING 152SUCTION SAMPLING 156BENTHIC CORING 156DRAGS, DREDGES, AND GRABS 157WET EXTRACTION 158ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATE SAMPLERS 159BAITED TRAPS AND REFUGES 159CAPTURING SOIL-LIVING INVERTEBRATES 161SIEVING 161FLOATATION AND PHASE-SEPARATION 161TULLGREN FUNNELS AND SIMILAR METHODS OF DRY EXTRACTION 162CHEMICAL EXTRACTION 164ELECTRICAL EXTRACTION 166CAPTURING GROUND-ACTIVE INVERTEBRATES 167PITFALL TRAPS 167SUCTION SAMPLERS 175EMERGENCE TRAPS 178CAPTURING INVERTEBRATES FROM PLANTS 180POOTERING 182SWEEP NETTING 184BEATING 185FOGGING 185CAPTURING AIRBORNE INVERTEBRATES 187STICKY TRAPS 190USING ATTRACTANTS 191REFUGES 194FLIGHT INTERCEPTION TRAPS 195LIGHT TRAPS 197ROTARY TRAPS 205WATER (PAN) TRAPS 206FISH 208DIRECT OBSERVATION 210INDIRECT METHODS 211CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 211NETS AND TRAPS 212COLLECTING FISH LARVAE 215ELECTROFISHING 215MARKING INDIVIDUALS 215AMPHIBIANS 218DIRECT OBSERVATION 221INDIRECT METHODS 221COUNTING EGG MASSES 221USING ENVIRONMENTAL DNA (EDNA) 222CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 222SAMPLING ADULTS IN WATER 223SAMPLING ADULTS ON LAND 224TADPOLES 226JUVENILES/METAMORPHS 226MARKING INDIVIDUALS 226REPTILES 228DIRECT OBSERVATION 228INDIRECT METHODS 229CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 230HAND-CAPTURE 232TRAPS 233MARKING INDIVIDUALS 235BIRDS 236DIRECT OBSERVATION 237TIMED SPECIES COUNT 239COMMON BIRD CENSUS/BREEDING BIRD SURVEY 240POINT COUNTS 241TRANSECT LINE COUNTS 242DISTANCE SAMPLING 242FLUSH COUNTS 244INDIRECT METHODS 245COUNTING NESTS AT A DISTANCE 246BIRD SONG 247CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 247MIST NETTING 248PROPELLED NETS 250MARKING INDIVIDUALS 250MAMMALS 253DIRECT OBSERVATION 254INDIRECT METHODS 257CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 264MARKING INDIVIDUALS 2725 ANALYSING AND INTERPRETING INFORMATION 275KEYS TO TESTS 278EXPLORING AND DESCRIBING DATA 285TRANSFORMING AND SCREENING DATA 285GRAPHICAL DISPLAY OF DATA 288MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND SAMPLE VARIABILITY 290SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS 292POPULATION ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES: DENSITIES AND POPULATION SIZES 292RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY 297SIMILARITY, DISSIMILARITY, AND DISTANCE COEFFICIENTS 297RECORDING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 300TESTING HYPOTHESES USING BASIC STATISTICAL TESTS AND SIMPLE GENERAL LINEAR MODELS 301DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SAMPLES 304RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES 307ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 312MORE ADVANCED GENERAL LINEAR MODELS FOR PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS 314MULTIPLE REGRESSION 314ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE 316DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSIS 318GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS 319EXTENSIONS OF THE GENERALIZED LINEAR MODEL 323EXTENSIONS OF GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS AND GAMS INTO MIXED-EFFECTS MODELS 324STATISTICAL METHODS TO EXAMINE PATTERN AND STRUCTURE IN COMMUNITIES: CLASSIFICATION, INDICATOR SPECIES, AND ORDINATION 325CLASSIFICATION 325CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES WHEN THE NUMBER OF GROUPS IS KNOWN 326SIGNIFICANCE TESTING FOR GROUP MEMBERSHIP: ANALYSIS OF SIMILARITY (ANOSIM) 328CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES WHEN THE NUMBER OF GROUPS IS UNKNOWN 329INDICATOR SPECIES ANALYSIS 331ORDINATION 332INDIRECT GRADIENT ANALYSIS 333COMPARING ORDINATIONS AND MATRIX DATA 338DIRECT GRADIENT ANALYSIS 3396 PRESENTING INFORMATION 343WRITTEN REPORTS 344TITLE 345ABSTRACT 345ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 346CONTENTS 346INTRODUCTION 347METHODS 347RESULTS 348ILLUSTRATIONS (TABLES, FIGURES, PLATES, EQUATIONS, ETC.) 349DISCUSSION 354REFERENCES 354CITING PAPERS 355APPENDICES 358ARCHIVING DATA 359AUTHORS´ CONTRIBUTIONS 359WRITING STYLE 359TENSE 362PASSIVE TENSE 362NUMBERS 362ABBREVIATIONS 363PUNCTUATION 364CHOICE OF FONT 365COMMON MISTAKES 366COMPUTER FILES 368SPECIFIC GUIDANCE FOR WRITING FOR A JOURNAL 368SPECIFIC GUIDANCE FOR PREPARING A POSTER 371SPECIFIC GUIDANCE FOR PREPARING AN ORAL PRESENTATION 376SUMMARY 379APPENDIX 1 GLOSSARY OF STATISTICAL TERMS 381REFERENCES 387INDEX 409

OFFERS A COMPREHENSIVE, ACCESSIBLE INTRODUCTION TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, FIELD MONITORING SKILLS FOR PLANTS AND ANIMALS, DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND REPORTING THIS USER-FRIENDLY BOOK PRESENTS FIELD MONITORING SKILLS FOR BOTH PLANTS AND ANIMALS, WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT. THIS TEXT PROVIDES A SINGLE RESOURCE TO TAKE THE READER ALL THE WAY THROUGH FROM THE PLANNING STAGE, INTO THE FIELD, GUIDING THROUGH SAMPLING, ORGANISM IDENTIFICATION, COMPUTER-BASED DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION, AND FINALLY HOW TO PRESENT THE RESULTS TO MAXIMISE THE IMPACT OF THE WORK. LOGICALLY STRUCTURED THROUGHOUT, AND REVISED EXTENSIVELY IN THE SECOND EDITION, THE BOOK CONCENTRATES ON THE TECHNIQUES REQUIRED TO DESIGN A FIELD-BASED ECOLOGICAL SURVEY AND SHOWS HOW TO EXECUTE AN APPROPRIATE SAMPLING REGIME. IT EVALUATES APPROPRIATE SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS, IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS TECHNIQUES AND HOW TO MITIGATE THESE. THE SECOND EDITION OF THIS POPULAR TEXT HAS UPDATED REFERENCE MATERIAL AND WEBLINKS, INCREASED THE NUMBER OF CASE STUDIES BY 50% TO ILLUSTRATE THE USE OF SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES IN THE FIELD, ADDED OVER 20% MORE FIGURES (INCLUDING 8 COLOUR PLATES), AND MADE MORE EXTENSIVE USE OF FOOTNOTES TO PROVIDE EXTRA DETAILS. EXTENSIONS TO TOPICS COVERED IN THE FIRST EDITION INCLUDE ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION OF: ETHICAL ISSUES; STATISTICAL METHODS (SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION, USE OF THE STATISTICAL PACKAGE R, MIXED MODELS); BIOINDICATORS, ESPECIALLY FOR FRESHWATER POLLUTION; SEEDS, FECUNDITY AND POPULATION DYNAMICS INCLUDING STATIC AND DYNAMIC LIFE TABLES; FORESTRY TECHNIQUES INCLUDING TREE CORING AND TREE MORTALITY CALCULATIONS; THE USE OF DATA REPOSITORIES; WRITING FOR A JOURNAL AND PRODUCING POSTER AND ORAL PRESENTATIONS. IN ADDITION, THE USE OF NEW AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES HAS BEEN A PARTICULAR FOCUS, INCLUDING MOBILE APPS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND IDENTIFICATION; LAND COVER AND GIS; THE USE OF DRONES INCLUDING LEGAL FRAMEWORKS AND CODES OF PRACTICE; MOLECULAR FIELD TECHNIQUES INCLUDING DNA ANALYSIS IN THE FIELD (INCLUDING EDNA); PHOTO-MATCHING FOR IDENTIFYING INDIVIDUALS; CAMERA TRAPPING; MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING AND ANALYSING BAT ECHOLOCATION CALLS; AND DATA STORAGE USING THE CLOUD. DIVIDED INTO SIX DISTINCT CHAPTERS, PRACTICAL FIELD ECOLOGY, 2ND EDITION BEGINS AT PROJECT INCEPTION WITH A CHAPTER ON PLANNING--COVERING HEALTH AND SAFETY, ALONG WITH GUIDANCE ON HOW TO ENSURE THAT THE SAMPLING AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IS SUITABLE FOR SUBSEQUENT STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. FOLLOWING A CHAPTER DEALING WITH SITE CHARACTERISATION AND GENERAL ASPECTS OF SPECIES IDENTIFICATION, SUBSEQUENT CHAPTERS DESCRIBE THE TECHNIQUES USED TO SURVEY AND CENSUS PARTICULAR GROUPS OF ORGANISMS. THE FINAL CHAPTERS COVER ANALYSING, INTERPRETING AND PRESENTING DATA, AND WRITING UP THE RESEARCH. OFFERS A READABLE AND APPROACHABLE INTEGRATED GUIDE DEVOTED TO FIELD-BASED RESEARCH PROJECTSTAKES STUDENTS FROM THE PLANNING STAGE, INTO THE FIELD, AND CLEARLY GUIDES THEM THROUGH ORGANISM IDENTIFICATION IN THE LABORATORY AND COMPUTER-BASED DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DATA PRESENTATIONINCLUDES A CHAPTER ON HOW TO WRITE PROJECT REPORTS AND PRESENT FINDINGS IN A VARIETY OF FORMATS TO DIFFERING AUDIENCES AIMED AT UNDERGRADUATES TAKING COURSES IN ECOLOGY, BIOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, PRACTICAL FIELD ECOLOGY, 2ND EDITION WILL ALSO BENEFIT POSTGRADUATES SEEKING TO SUPPORT THEIR PROJECTS.

BIOLOGIA
MEDIO AMBIENTE
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