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NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY, 3 VOLUME SET

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9783527340149 ::  NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY, 3 VOLUME SET
ISBN:

9783527340149

Colección:APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Edicion:
Páginas:1316
Idioma:INGLES
P.V.P.: 505,12 € + 4% IVA = 525,32 €
Dto 5% Ahorras 26,27 €
Importe final iva incl. 499,05 €
EN STOCK / ENVIO EN 8-10 DIAS

IN THREE HANDY VOLUMES, THIS READY REFERENCE PROVIDES A DETAILED OVERVIEW OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AS IT IS APPLIED TO ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY. CLEARLY STRUCTURED, FOLLOWING AN INTRODUCTION, THE FIRST PART OF THE BOOK IS DEDICATED TO ENERGY PRODUCTION, RENEWABLE ENERGY, ENERGY STORAGE, ENERGY DISTRIBUTION, AND ENERGY CONVERSION AND HARVESTING. THE SECOND PART THEN GOES ON TO DISCUSS NANO–ENABLED MATERIALS, ENERGY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, TECHNOLOGICAL AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY–RELATED ISSUES AND MARKETS AND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION. THE TEXT CONCLUDES WITH A LOOK AT AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES.
AN ESSENTIAL HANDBOOK FOR ALL EXPERTS IN THE FIELD – FROM ACADEMIC RESEARCHERS AND ENGINEERS TO DEVELOPERS IN INDUSTRY.

FOREWORD BY PROF. DR. DR. HC. MULT. HERBERT GLEITER XXXV FOREWORD BY PROF. DR. JOACHIM MAIER XXXVII FOREWORD BY PROF. C.N.R. RAO, F.R.S. XXXIX PERSPECTIVE ON THE BOOK ON NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BY PROF. TU HAILING XLI A WAY FORWARD BY BALDEV RAJ, MARCEL VAN DE VOORDE, AND YASHWANT MAHAJAN XLV INTRODUCTION BY BALDEV RAJ, MARCEL VAN DE VOORDE, AND YASHWANT MAHAJAN LIII VOLUME 1 PART ONE ENERGY PRODUCTION 1 1 FOSSIL FUELS: THE EFFECT OF ZEOLITE CATALYST PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY ON CATALYST PERFORMANCE IN THE CONVERSION OF METHANOL TO HYDROCARBONS 3
KATARZYNA ANNA UKASZUK, PABLO DEL CAMPO HUERTAS, ANDREA MOLINO, MALTE NIELSEN, DANIEL ROJO–GAMA, JUAN SALVADOR MARTINEZ–ESPIN, KARL PETTER LILLERUD, UNNI OLSBYE, SILVIA BORDIGA, PABLO BEATO, AND STIAN SVELLE 1.1 ZEOLITES AND ZEOTYPES AS NANOCATALYSTS FOR PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 3 1.2 MODIFICATION OF POROSITY: HIERARCHICAL ZEOLITES 4 1.3 MODIFICATION OF SIZE AND MORPHOLOGY 8 1.4 TOOLS TO PREDICT AND CHARACTERIZE ZEOLITE MORPHOLOGY 14 1.5 TAILOR–MADE CATALYSTS FOR THE METHANOL–TO–HYDROCARBONS (MTH) REACTION 18 1.6 SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 29 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 30 REFERENCES 30 2 FOSSIL FUELS: NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR ENGINEERING 41
IGOR N. EVDOKIMOV 2.1 INTRODUCTION 41 2.2 ADDITION OF NANOSIZED COLLOIDAL PARTICLES TO TECHNOLOGICAL FLUIDS 42 2.3 INDIGENOUS NANOCOLLOIDAL PARTICLES IN NATIVE PETROLEUM FLUIDS 51 2.4 CONCLUSIONS 53 2.5 APPENDIX 54 REFERENCES 55 3 FOSSIL FUELS: COKE–RESISTANT NANOMATERIALS FOR GAS–TO–LIQUID (GTL) FUELS 59
BRIAN A. ROSEN AND SARIKA SINGH 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO GAS–TO–LIQUID (GTL) TECHNOLOGY 59 3.2 A THERMODYNAMIC VIEW OF CATALYST COKING 60 3.3 TUNING OF ACTIVE SITES TO RESIST COKING 65 3.4 METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING CARBON DEPOSITS 71 3.5 SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 79 REFERENCES 79 4 PHOTOVOLTAICS: LIGHT ENERGY HARVESTING WITH PLASMONIC NANOPARTICLE NETWORKS 83
JEAN–PAUL HUGONIN, MONDHER BESBES, AND PHILIPPE BEN–ABDALLAH 4.1 INTRODUCTION 83 4.2 LIGHT ABSORPTION BY A SINGLE PARTICLE 84 4.3 LIGHT ABSORPTION BY A COLLECTION OF PARTICLES 86 4.4 UPPER BOUND FOR LIGHT ABSORPTION IN NANOPARTICLE NETWORKS 89 4.5 LIGHT ABSORPTION BEYOND THE DIPOLAR APPROXIMATION 91 4.6 DESIGN OF ABSORPTION SPECTRUM WITH PLASMONIC PARTICLES 93 4.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS 97 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 97 REFERENCES 98 5 PHOTOVOLTAICS: ROLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DYE–SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS 101
MURUGESAN JANANI, SHANTIKUMAR V. NAIR, AND A. SREEKUMARAN NAIR 5.1 NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS RELEVANCE 101 5.2 A BRIEF HISTORY ON DYE–SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS (DSSCS) 102 5.3 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF DSSCS 103 5.4 TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING SUBSTRATE 104 5.5 SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS 105 5.6 NANOTECHNOLOGY VIS À VIS RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRY 105 5.7 NANOTECHNOLOGY VIS À VIS DYE–SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS 105 5.8 SENSITIZER 118 5.9 PLASMONICS 122 5.10 COUNTER ELECTRODE 124 5.11 CONCLUSIONS 127 REFERENCES 128 6 PHOTOVOLTAICS: NANOMATERIALS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION 133
ABDELILAH SLAOUI, DANIEL LINCOT, JEAN FRANÇOIS GUILLEMOLES, AND LUDOVIC ESCOUBAS 6.1 INTRODUCTION 133 6.2 PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES: STATE OF THE ART 134 6.3 NANOMATERIALS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS 137 6.4 CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK 157 REFERENCES 158 7 PHOTOVOLTAICS: LIGHT–TRAPPING IN CRYSTALLINE SILICON AND THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS BY NANOSTRUCTURED OPTICAL COATINGS 163
PIERPAOLO SPINELLI, B.K. NEWMAN, AND A. POLMAN 7.1 INTRODUCTION 163 7.2 CRYSTALLINE SI SOLAR CELLS 165 7.3 NANOSTRUCTURED COATINGS FOR THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS 171 7.4 OTHER PV APPLICATIONS OF RESONANT NANOSTRUCTURES 176 7.5 SUMMARY 177 REFERENCES 178 8 PHOTOVOLTAICS: NANOENGINEERED MATERIALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONALITY IN SOLAR CELLS 181
KAINING DING, THOMAS KIRCHARTZ, KARSTEN BITTKAU, ANDREAS LAMBERTZ, VLADIMIR SMIRNOV, JÜRGEN HÜPKES, AND UWE RAU 8.1 INTRODUCTION 181 8.2 FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF A SOLAR CELL 182 8.3 TRANSPARENT AND CONDUCTIVE FRONT ELECTRODES 185 8.4 NANOSTRUCTURED CONTACT MATERIAL 187 8.5 NANOSTRUCTURED ABSORBER MATERIALS 191 8.6 BACK ELECTRODES AND INTERMEDIATE LAYER 196 8.7 CONCLUSIONS 200 REFERENCES 200 9 NONSELECTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS IN CSP 207
RAJ KUMAR BERA, DANIEL MANDLER, AND SHLOMO MAGDASSI 9.1 INTRODUCTION 207 9.2 MATERIALS 210 9.3 FABRICATION METHODS 212 9.4 PERFORMANCE 215 9.5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NONSELECTIVE OVERSELECTIVE COATINGS 227 9.6 CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES 227 9.7 FUTURE ASPECTS 228 REFERENCES 229 10 SELECTIVE SURFACES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION IN CSP: FROM MULTILAYERS TO NANOCOMPOSITES 231
AUDREY SOUM–GLAUDE, LAURIE DI GIACOMO, SÉBASTIEN QUOIZOLA, THOMAS LAURENT, AND GILLES FLAMANT 10.1 INTRODUCTION 231 10.2 STATE OF THE ART ON SELECTIVE SURFACES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION 232 10.3 W SIC MULTINANOLAYERS AS HIGH–TEMPERATURE SOLAR SELECTIVE COATINGS 237 10.4 CONCLUSIONS 243 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 244 REFERENCES 244 11 NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY AUGMENTING BIOLOGICAL GASEOUS ENERGY RECOVERY 249
SHANTONU ROY AND DEBABRATA DAS 11.1 INTRODUCTION 249 11.2 DARK FERMENTATIVE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPROVEMENT USING NANOPARTICLES 250 11.3 GASEOUS ENERGY EXTRACTION VIA BIOMETHANATION PROCESS AND IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMETHANATION PROCESS USING
NANOPARTICLES 256 11.4 BIOH2 PRODUCTION VIA PHOTOFERMENTATION AND ROLE OF NANOPARTICLES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF H2 PRODUCTION 260 11.5 PHOTOCATALYTIC CONVERSION OF ACETATE IN SPENT MEDIA TO H2 262 11.6 CONCLUSION 265 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 266 REFERENCES 266 12 NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN SODIUM–COOLED FAST SPECTRUM REACTOR AND CLOSED FUEL CYCLE SUSTAINABLE NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM 271
BALDEV RAJ AND U. KAMACHI MUDALI 12.1 INTRODUCTION 271 12.2 NANOMATERIALS FOR NUCLEAR SYSTEMS 273 12.3 NANOSENSORS, SURFACE MODIFICATION, AND COATINGS FOR REACTOR AND REPROCESSING APPLICATIONS 280 12.4 SURFACE MODIFICATION AND COATING TECHNOLOGIES BASED ON NANOTECHNOLOGY 285 12.5 SUMMARY 290 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 291 REFERENCES 291 13 NANOTECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRIC POWER: THE PERSPECTIVE OF A MAJOR PLAYER IN ELECTRICITY 295
DIDIER NOËL 13.1 THE CONTEXT AND PERSPECTIVE OF A GLOBAL PLAYER IN ELECTRICITY 295 13.2 THE ISSUE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC POWER 298 13.3 MAIN SUBJECTS STUDIED 299 13.4 SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE AND HEALTH RISK 315 13.5 CONCLUSIONS 320 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 320 REFERENCES 320 14 LIGHTWEIGHT NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS AND THEIR CERTIFICATION FOR WIND ENERGY APPLICATIONS 323
BIKRAMJIT BASU, SHERINE ALEX, AND N. ESWARA PRASAD 14.1 INTRODUCTION 323 14.2 PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND ENERGY APPLICATIONS 326 14.3 BRIEF OVERVIEW ON MATERIALS FOR WIND ENERGY APPLICATIONS 332 14.4 PROPERTIES OF BULK CERAMIC NANOMATERIALS 339 14.5 CERTIFICATION 342 14.6 CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK 346 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 348 REFERENCES 348 VOLUME 2 PART TWO ENERGY STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION 353 15 NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS FOR NEXT–GENERATION LITHIUM–ION BATTERIES 355
T. SRI DEVI KUMARI, T. PREM KUMAR, AND A.K. SHUKLA 15.1 INTRODUCTION 355 15.2 ANODE–ACTIVE MATERIALS 357 15.3 CATHODE–ACTIVE MATERIALS 361 15.4 ELECTROLYTES 362 15.5 NEW REACTIONS 364 15.6 SAFETY 367 15.7 CONCLUSIONS 369 REFERENCES 369 16 CARBON NANOTUBE MATERIALS TO REALIZE HIGH–PERFORMANCE SUPERCAPACITORS 377
ANTHONY CHILDRESS, JINGYI ZHU, MEHMET KARAKAYA, DEEPIKA SAINI, RAMAKRISHNA PODILA, AND APPARAO RAO 16.1 INTRODUCTION 377 16.2 CNI S CONTRIBUTIONS 380 16.3 SUSTAINABILITY 386 16.4 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS 387 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 387 REFERENCES 387 17 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS OF NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERCAPACITORS 391
KATHERINE L. VAN AKEN AND YURY GOGOTSI 17.1 INTRODUCTION 391 17.2 PROPERTIES OF SUPERCAPACITORS 391 17.3 TERMINOLOGY AND ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER 393 17.4 NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 395 17.5 ELECTROLYTES FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS 398 17.6 ELECTRODE ELECTROLYTE INTERFACES 400 17.7 DESIGN OF CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES THROUGH ELECTRODE ELECTROLYTE COUPLING 404 17.8 FUTURE OUTLOOK AND RECOMMENDATIONS 409 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 410 REFERENCES 410 18 NANOSTRUCTURED AND COMPLEX HYDRIDES FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE 415
LARS H. JEPSEN, MARK PASKEVICIUS, AND TORBEN R. JENSEN 18.1 INTRODUCTION 415 18.2 THE WEAKER BONDS FORMED BY HYDROGEN 417 18.3 THE STRONGER BONDS FORMED BY HYDROGEN 418 18.4 CONCLUSION 427 REFERENCES 427 19 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE STORAGE OF HYDROGEN 433
MAREK NOWAK AND MIECZYSLAW JURCZYK 19.1 INTRODUCTION 433 19.2 NANOTECHNOLOGY 433 19.3 INTERMETALLICS–BASED HYDRIDES WITH NANOSTRUCTURE 440 19.4 NANOCOMPOSITE–BASED HYDRIDES 452 19.5 SUMMARY 456 REFERENCES 456 20 PHASE CHANGE NANOMATERIALS FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE 459
KINGA PIELICHOWSKA AND KRZYSZTOF PIELICHOWSKI 20.1 INTRODUCTION 459 20.2 NANOENHANCED PCMS 461 20.3 NANOSTRUCTURED PCMS 476 20.4 CONCLUSIONS 478 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 479 REFERENCES 479 21 CARBON NANOTUBE WIRES AND CABLES: NEAR–TERM APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 485
JEREMY LEE AND SEERAM RAMAKRISHNA 21.1 INTRODUCTION 485 21.2 CARBON NANOTUBE WIRES AND CABLES 490 21.3 APPLICATIONS OF CNT WIRES AND CABLES 500 21.4 CONCLUSION 502 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 502 REFERENCES 502 PART THREE ENERGY CONVERSION AND HARVESTING 507 22 NANOSTRUCTURED THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS: CURRENT RESEARCH AND FUTURE CHALLENGES 509
HILAAL ALAM AND SEERAM RAMAKRISHNA 22.1 INTRODUCTION TO THERMOELECTRICITY 509 22.2 CHALLENGES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY 511 22.3 ELECTRONIC AND PHONON PROPERTIES 516 22.4 CURRENT RESEARCHES: THERMOELECTRIC NANO MATERIALS MATERIALS AND THEIR PERFORMANCES 518 22.5 FUTURE CHALLENGES 530 22.6 ROADMAP FOR THE FUTURE RESEARCHES 533 22.7 CONCLUSION 535 REFERENCES 537 23 NANOSTRUCTURED COST–EFFECTIVE AND ENERGY–EFFICIENT THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS 547
ZHI–GANG CHEN AND JIN ZOU 23.1 INTRODUCTION 547 23.2 KEY PARAMETERS FOR CONTROLLING ZT 548 23.3 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 550 23.4 NANOSTRUCTURE ENGINEERING TO LOWER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 551 23.5 BAND ENGINEERING TO ENHANCE THE POWER FACTOR 554 23.6 DEVELOPMENT OF COST–EFFECTIVE AND ENERGY–EFFICIENT NANOSTRUCTURED THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS 555 23.7 OUTLOOK AND FUTURE CHALLENGE 559 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 560 REFERENCES 560 24 NANOMATERIALS FOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 569
K.S. DHATHATHREYAN, N. RAJALAKSHMI, AND R. BALAJI 24.1 INTRODUCTION 569 24.2 NANOMATERIALS FOR POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL AND FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES 569 24.3 ROLE OF NANOMATERIALS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 579 24.4 CONCLUSION 585 REFERENCES 586 25 CONTRIBUTIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY TO HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 597
SAMBANDAM ANANDAN, FEMI THOMAS CHERUVATHOOR, AND MUTHUPANDIAN ASHOKKUMAR 25.1 INTRODUCTION 597 25.2 PHOTOCATALYTIC WATER SPLITTING REACTION 598 25.3 NANO SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC WATER SPLITTING 600 25.4 SUMMARY 624 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 624 REFERENCES 625 26 NANOENHANCED MATERIALS FOR PHOTOLYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 629
XIUQUAN GU, SHUAI YUAN, MINGGUO MA, AND JIEFANG ZHU 26.1 INTRODUCTION 629 26.2 BASIC PRINCIPLE AND EVALUATION METHODS FOR PHOTOLYTIC H2 PRODUCTION 630 26.3 PHOTOLYTIC H2 EVOLUTION BASED ON NANOENHANCED MATERIALS 632 26.4 CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK 645 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 646 REFERENCES 646 27 HUMAN VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTER WITH PZT 649
TAMIL SELVAN RAMADOSS AND SEERAM RAMAKRISHNA 27.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICRO ENERGY HARVESTING 649 27.2 HUMAN VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTER WITH PZT 655 27.3 ALTERNATIVE DESIGN OF CANTILEVER PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER 660 27.4 STRESS DISTRIBUTION SIMULATION FOR DIFFERENT SURFACE SHAPES 664 27.5 VARIABLE PROFILE THICKNESS OF THE METAL SHIM 666 27.6 COMPARISON OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION FOR VARIOUS SURFACE SHAPES AND PROFILES 671 27.7 OUTPUT POWER COMPARISON OF VARIOUS PROFILES 672 27.8 CONCLUSION 673 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 674 REFERENCES 674 28 ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: ROLE OF SEMICONDUCTOR NANOTECHNOLOGY 679
VICTOR V. ZHIRNOV AND KOTA V.R.M. MURALI 28.1 INTRODUCTION 679 28.2 ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING 681 28.3 ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN COMPUTING: FROM BITS TO MILLIONS OF INSTRUCTIONS PER SECOND (MIPS) 687 28.4 FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS OF BINARY OPERATIONS 690 28.5 OPPORTUNITIES FOR BEYOND THE CURRENT INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY PARADIGM 701 REFERENCES 704 VOLUME 3 PART FOUR NANOENABLED MATERIALS AND COATINGS FOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS 707 29 NANOCRYSTALLINE BAINITIC STEELS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 709
C. GARCIA–MATEO AND F.G. CABALLERO 29.1 INTRODUCTION 709 29.2 DESIGN OF NANOCRYSTALLINE STEEL GRADES: SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS 709 29.3 MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES 712 29.4 SUMMARY 721 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 721 REFERENCES 722 30 GRAPHENE AND GRAPHENE OXIDE FOR ENERGY STORAGE 725
EDWARD P. RANDVIIR AND CRAIG E. BANKS 30.1 GRAPHENE HITS THE HEADLINES 725 30.2 GRAPHENE: WHY ALL THE FUSS? 726 30.3 GRAPHENE AND GRAPHENE OXIDE IN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 727 30.4 GRAPHENE AND GRAPHENE OXIDE IN ENERGY GENERATION DEVICES 734 REFERENCES 741 31 INORGANIC NANOTUBES AND FULLERENE–LIKE NANOPARTICLES AT THE CROSSROAD BETWEEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY AND THEIR APPLICATIONS WITH REGARD TO SUSTAINABILITY 745
LEELA S. PANCHAKARLA AND RESHEF TENNE 31.1 INTRODUCTION 745 31.2 SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION 746 31.3 DOPING INORGANIC FULLERENES/NANOTUBES 757 31.4 APPLICATIONS 758 31.5 FULLERENES AND NANOTUBULAR STRUCTURES FROM MISFIT LAYERED COMPOUNDS 764 31.6 CONCLUSIONS 776 REFERENCES 776 32 NANOTECHNOLOGY, ENERGY, AND FRACTALS NATURE 781
VOJISLAV V. MITIC , LJUBIS A M. KOCIC , STEVEN TIDROW, AND HANS–JÖRG FECHT 32.1 INTRODUCTION 781 32.2 SHORT INTRODUCTION TO FRACTALS 782 32.3 NANOSIZES AND FRACTALS 784 32.4 ENERGY AND FRACTALS 788 32.5 TOWARD FRACTAL NANOELECTRONICS 793 32.6 THE GOLDSCHMIDT S TOLERANCE FACTOR, CLAUSIUS MOSSOTTI RELATION, CURIE, AND CURIE WEISS LAW BRIDGE TO FRACTAL NANOELECTRONICS CONTRIBUTION 797 32.7 SUMMARY 803 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 805 REFERENCES 805 33 MAGNESIUM BASED NANOCOMPOSITES FOR CLEANER TRANSPORT 809
MANOJ GUPTA AND SANKARANARAYANAN SEETHARAMAN 33.1 INTRODUCTION 809 33.2 FABRICATION OF MAGNESIUM–BASED NANOCOMPOSITES 811 33.3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION 814 33.4 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES 822 33.5 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS IN TRANSPORT INDUSTRIES 824 33.6 CHALLENGES 825 33.7 CONCLUSIONS 825 REFERENCES 826 34 NANOCOMPOSITES: A GAZE THROUGH THEIR APPLICATIONS IN TRANSPORT INDUSTRY 831
KOTTAN RENGANAYAGALU RAVI, JAYAKRISHNAN NAMPOOTHIRI, AND BALDEV RAJ 34.1 INTRODUCTION 831 34.2 POLYMER MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES IN TRANSPORT SECTOR 832 34.3 LIGHTWEIGHT HIGH–STRENGTH METAL MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES 838 34.4 CERAMIC MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES IN TRANSPORT INDUSTRY 845 34.5 NANOCOMPOSITE COATING 849 34.6 CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR NANOCOMPOSITES 849 REFERENCES 851 35 SEMICONDUCTING NANOWIRES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC AND THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION 857
GUGLIELMO VASTOLA AND GANG ZHANG 35.1 INTRODUCTION 857 35.2 FABRICATION OF SILICON AND SILICON GERMANIUM NANOWIRES 858 35.3 NANOWIRE–BASED PHOTOVOLTAICS 865 35.4 INTRODUCTION OF THERMOELECTRIC EFFECTS 871 35.5 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SILICON NANOWIRES 874 35.6 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTY OF SILICON NANOWIRES 876 35.7 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTY OF SILICON GERMANIUM NANOWIRES 877 35.8 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTY OF OTHER NANOWIRES 879 REFERENCES 881 36 NANOLIQUID METAL TECHNOLOGY TOWARD HIGH–PERFORMANCE ENERGY MANAGEMENT, CONVERSION, AND STORAGE 887
JING LIU 36.1 INTRODUCTION 887 36.2 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOLIQUID METAL 889 36.3 EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF NANOLIQUID METAL IN ENERGY AREAS 892 36.4 CHALLENGING SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES 904 36.5 SUMMARY 906 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 907 REFERENCES 907 37 IONANOFLUIDS: INNOVATIVE AGENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 911
CARLOS NIETO DE CASTRO, XAVIER PAREDES, SALOMÉ VIEIRA, SOHEL MURSHED, MARIA JOSÉ LOURENÇO, AND FERNANDO SANTOS 37.1 INTRODUCTION 911 37.2 IONANOFLUIDS: NATURE, DEFINITIONS, PREPARATION, AND STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION 912 37.3 IONANOFLUIDS PROPERTIES 920 37.4 APPLICATIONS OF IONANOFLUIDS 926 37.5 CHALLENGES IN IONANOFLUIDS RESEARCH 930 37.6 CHALLENGES TO INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 931 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 932 REFERENCES 932 PART FIVE ENERGY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT 937 38 SILICA AEROGELS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION AND SAVING 939
YAMINI ANANTHAN, K. KEERTHI SANGHAMITRA, AND NEHA HEBALKAR 38.1 INTRODUCTION 939 38.2 THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS 940 38.3 AEROGELS 940 38.4 PREPARATION 944 38.5 AEROGELS IN VARIOUS FORMS: MONOLITHS, GRANULES, AND SHEETS 945 38.6 THERMAL INSULATION APPLICATIONS 954 38.7 ENERGY SAVING AND CONSERVATION USING AEROGEL PRODUCTS 960 38.8 CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 961 38.9 SAFETY AND HAZARD MEASURES 962 38.10 SUMMARY 962 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 963 REFERENCES 963 39 NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE 967
GEORGE ELVIN 39.1 NANOTECHNOLOGY AND GREEN BUILDING 967 39.2 ENERGY 969 39.3 AIR AND WATER 978 39.4 MATERIALS 980 39.5 NANOSENSORS 990 39.6 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH CONCERNS 991 REFERENCES 992 40 NANOFLUIDS FOR EFFICIENT HEAT TRANSFER APPLICATIONS 997
BALDEV RAJ, S.A. ANGAYARKANNI, AND JOHN PHILIP 40.1 INTRODUCTION 997 40.2 TRADITIONAL NANOFLUIDS 999 40.3 CNT–BASED NANOFLUIDS 1008 40.4 MAGNETIC NANOFLUIDS 1009 40.5 GRAPHENE NANOFLUIDS 1012 40.6 HYBRID NANOFLUID 1013 40.7 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL 1015 40.8 CONCLUSIONS 1018 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 1019 REFERENCES 1019 PART SIX TECHNOLOGIES, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND MARKETS 1029 41 NANOMATERIALS FOR LI–ION BATTERIES: PATENTS LANDSCAPE AND PRODUCT SCENARIO 1031
MD SHAKEEL IQBAL, NISHA C. KALARICKAL, VIVEK PATEL, AND RATNESH KUMAR GAUR 41.1 INTRODUCTION 1031 41.2 LITHIUM–ION BATTERY: BASIC CONCEPTS 1031 41.3 ADVANTAGES OF NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS 1034 41.4 PATENT ANALYSIS 1035 41.5 TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS 1038 41.6 COMMERCIAL STATUS OF NANO–ENABLED LI–ION BATTERIES 1050 41.7 MARKET 1051 41.8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 1051 REFERENCES 1053 42 NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FUEL CELLS: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS 1057
MANISH SINHA, RATNESH KUMAR GAUR, AND HARSHAD KARMARKAR 42.1 INTRODUCTION 1057 42.2 LITERATURE ANALYSIS 1058 42.3 PATENT LANDSCAPING 1061 42.4 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS PATENT ANALYSIS 1067 42.5 TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS 1070 42.6 SCENARIO OF COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS CAN BE MOVED AFTER FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 1075 42.7 FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 1077 42.8 CONCLUSION 1077 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1078 43 TECHNO–COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN WIND ENERGY 1079
VIVEK PATEL AND Y.R. MAHAJAN 43.1 INTRODUCTION 1079 43.2 WIND ENERGY INDUSTRY REQUIREMENTS 1080 43.3 GROWTH DRIVERS 1081 43.4 CHALLENGES 1081 43.5 APPLICATIONS 1083 43.6 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY SCENARIO 1094 43.7 PRODUCTS OUTLOOK 1098 43.8 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT AND DIRECTIONS 1100 43.9 CONCLUSION 1102 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 1103 REFERENCES 1103 PART SEVEN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 1107 44 NANOMATERIALS FOR THE CONVERSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO RENEWABLE FUELS AND VALUE–ADDED PRODUCTS 1109
IBRAM GANESH 44.1 INTRODUCTION: DEALING WITH THE WASTE STREAM GREENHOUSE CO2 GAS 1109 44.2 THEORETICAL POTENTIALS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF CO2 1112 44.3 CO2 SPECIATION VERSUS ELECTROLYTE PH 1120 44.4 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON ELECTRODE PERFORMANCE IN ELECTROCHEMICAL CO2 REDUCTION REACTION 1125 44.5 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE EFFICIENCY OF AQUEOUS–BASED CO2 REDUCTION REACTIONS 1126 44.6 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE EFFICIENCY OF NONAQUEOUS–BASED CO2 REDUCTION REACTIONS 1129 44.7 REVERSE MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS: THE PRACTICAL ARTIFICIAL LEAVES 1133 44.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 1136 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1136 REFERENCES 1136 45 NANOMATERIAL–BASED METHODS FOR CLEANING CONTAMINATED WATER IN OIL SPILL SITES 1139
BORIS I. KHARISOV, H.V. RASIKA DIAS, OXANA V. KHARISSOVA, AND YOLANDA PEÑA MÉNDEZ 45.1 INTRODUCTION 1139 45.2 INORGANIC NANOMATERIALS AND COMPOSITES 1141 45.3 NANOSIZED NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS 1151 45.4 NANOMATERIALS–BASED MEMBRANES 1153 45.5 AEROGELS 1153 45.6 TOXICITY, COST, AND SELECTION OF NANOMATERIALS FOR WATER CLEANUP FROM OIL 1154 45.7 CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER OUTLOOK 1155 REFERENCES 1156 46 NANOMATERIALS AND DIRECT AIR CAPTURE OF CO2 1161
DIRK FRANSAER 46.1 INTRODUCTION 1161 46.2 CO2 AS A RESOURCE 1163 46.3 CIRCULAR CO2 ECONOMY 1165 46.4 CO2 CAPTURE OR SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 1165 46.5 NEW ROADS INTO CO2 CAPTURE: DIRECT AIR CAPTURE AND NANOMATERIALS 1168 46.6 NANOMATERIALS 1169 46.7 CARBON NANOTUBES 1171 46.8 CONCLUSION 1174 REFERENCES 1174 INDEX 1179

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