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COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS

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9781119818687 ::  COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS
ISBN:

9781119818687

Collection:MACHINE LEARNING IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE AND HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS
Publisher:JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Edition:
Pages:432
Language:INGLES
P.V.P.: 213,88 € + 4% IVA = 222,44 €
Dto 5% Save 11,12 €
Final amount iva incl. 211,32 €
EN PREPARACION 2022

PREFACE XV PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 1 MACHINE LEARNING AND BIG DATA: AN APPROACH TOWARD BETTER HEALTHCARE SERVICES 3
NAHID SAMI AND ASFIA AZIZ 1.1 INTRODUCTION 3 1.2 MACHINE LEARNING IN HEALTHCARE 4 1.3 MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS 6 1.3.1 SUPERVISED LEARNING 6 1.3.2 UNSUPERVISED LEARNING 7 1.3.3 SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING 7 1.3.4 REINFORCEMENT LEARNING 8 1.3.5 DEEP LEARNING 8 1.4 BIG DATA IN HEALTHCARE 8 1.5 APPLICATION OF BIG DATA IN HEALTHCARE 9 1.5.1 ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS 9 1.5.2 HELPING IN DIAGNOSTICS 9 1.5.3 PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 10 1.5.4 PRECISION MEDICINE 10 1.5.5 MEDICAL RESEARCH 10 1.5.6 COST REDUCTION 10 1.5.7 POPULATION HEALTH 10 1.5.8 TELEMEDICINE 10 1.5.9 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 11 1.5.10 IMPROVED OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY 11 1.5.11 OUTBREAK PREDICTION 11 1.6 CHALLENGES FOR BIG DATA 11 1.7 CONCLUSION 11 REFERENCES 12 PART II: MEDICAL DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS 15 2 THORACIC IMAGE ANALYSIS USING DEEP LEARNING 17
RAKHI WAJGI, JITENDRA V. TEMBHURNE AND DIPAK WAJGI 2.1 INTRODUCTION 18 2.2 BROAD OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH 19 2.2.1 CHALLENGES 19 2.2.2 PERFORMANCE MEASURING PARAMETERS 21 2.2.3 AVAILABILITY OF DATASETS 21 2.3 EXISTING MODELS 23 2.4 COMPARISON OF EXISTING MODELS 30 2.5 SUMMARY 38 2.6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 38 REFERENCES 39 3 FEATURE SELECTION AND MACHINE LEARNING MODELS FOR HIGH-DIMENSIONAL DATA: STATE-OF-THE-ART 43
G. MANIKANDAN AND S. ABIRAMI 3.1 INTRODUCTION 43 3.1.1 MOTIVATION OF THE DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION 45 3.1.2 FEATURE SELECTION AND FEATURE EXTRACTION 46 3.1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE FEATURE SELECTION 47 3.1.4 FEATURE SELECTION PROCESS 47 3.2 TYPES OF FEATURE SELECTION 48 3.2.1 FILTER METHODS 49 3.2.1.1 CORRELATION-BASED FEATURE SELECTION 49 3.2.1.2 THE FAST CORRELATION-BASED FILTER 50 3.2.1.3 THE INTERACT ALGORITHM 51 3.2.1.4 RELIEFF 51 3.2.1.5 MINIMUM REDUNDANCY MAXIMUM RELEVANCE 52 3.2.2 WRAPPER METHODS 52 3.2.3 EMBEDDED METHODS 53 3.2.4 HYBRID METHODS 54 3.3 MACHINE LEARNING AND DEEP LEARNING MODELS 55 3.3.1 RESTRICTED BOLTZMANN MACHINE 55 3.3.2 AUTOENCODER 56 3.3.3 CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS 57 3.3.4 RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORK 58 3.4 REAL-WORLD APPLICATIONS AND SCENARIO OF FEATURE SELECTION 58 3.4.1 MICROARRAY 58 3.4.2 INTRUSION DETECTION 59 3.4.3 TEXT CATEGORIZATION 59 3.5 CONCLUSION 59 REFERENCES 60 4 A SMART WEB APPLICATION FOR SYMPTOM-BASED DISEASE DETECTION AND PREDICTION USING STATE-OF-THE-ART ML AND ANN MODELS 65
PARVEJ REJA SALEH AND EESHANKUR SAIKIA 4.1 INTRODUCTION 65 4.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 68 4.3 DATASET, EDA, AND DATA PROCESSING 69 4.4 MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS 72 4.4.1 MULTINOMIAL NAIVE BAYES CLASSIFIER 72 4.4.2 SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE CLASSIFIER 72 4.4.3 RANDOM FOREST CLASSIFIER 73 4.4.4 K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR CLASSIFIER 74 4.4.5 DECISION TREE CLASSIFIER 74 4.4.6 LOGISTIC REGRESSION CLASSIFIER 75 4.4.7 MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON CLASSIFIER 76 4.5 WORK ARCHITECTURE 77 4.6 CONCLUSION 78 REFERENCES 79 5 CLASSIFICATION OF HEART SOUND SIGNALS USING TIME-FREQUENCY IMAGE TEXTURE FEATURES 81
SUJATA VYAS, MUKESH D. PATIL AND GAJANAN K. BIRAJDAR 5.1 INTRODUCTION 81 5.1.1 MOTIVATION 82 5.2 RELATED WORK 83 5.3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 84 5.3.1 PRE-PROCESSING TECHNIQUES 84 5.3.2 SPECTROGRAM GENERATION 85 5.3.2 FEATURE EXTRACTION 88 5.3.4 FEATURE SELECTION 90 5.3.5 SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE 91 5.4 PROPOSED ALGORITHM 91 5.5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 92 5.5.1 DATABASE 92 5.5.2 EVALUATION METRICS 94 5.5.3 CONFUSION MATRIX 94 5.5.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 94 5.6 CONCLUSION 96 REFERENCES 99 6 IMPROVING MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION IN PROTOTYPE SELECTION SCENARIO 103
HIMANSHU SUYAL AND AVTAR SINGH 6.1 INTRODUCTION 103 6.2 RELATED WORK 105 6.3 METHODOLOGY 106 6.3.1 EXPERIMENTS AND EVALUATION 108 6.4 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 108 6.5 EXPERIMENT DATA SET 109 6.6 EXPERIMENT RESULTS 110 6.7 CONCLUSION 117 REFERENCES 117 7 A MACHINE LEARNING-BASED INTELLIGENT COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PREDICTION OF DIABETES DISEASE 121
MAQSOOD HAYAT, YAR MUHAMMAD AND MUHAMMAD TAHIR 7.1 INTRODUCTION 121 7.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 123 7.2.1 DATASET 123 7.2.2 PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR DIABETES SYSTEM 124 7.2.3 PRE-PROCESSING OF DATA 124 7.3 MACHINE LEARNING CLASSIFICATION HYPOTHESES 124 7.3.1 K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR 124 7.3.2 DECISION TREE 125 7.3.3 RANDOM FOREST 126 7.3.4 LOGISTIC REGRESSION 126 7.3.5 NAIVE BAYES 126 7.3.6 SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE 126 7.3.7 ADAPTIVE BOOSTING 126 7.3.8 EXTRA-TREE CLASSIFIER 127 7.4 CLASSIFIER VALIDATION METHOD 127 7.4.1 K-FOLD CROSS-VALIDATION TECHNIQUE 127 7.5 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METRICS 127 7.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 129 7.6.1 PERFORMANCE OF ALL CLASSIFIERS USING 5-FOLD CV METHOD 129 7.6.2 PERFORMANCE OF ALL CLASSIFIERS USING THE 7-FOLD CROSS-VALIDATION METHOD 131 7.6.3 PERFORMANCE OF ALL CLASSIFIERS USING 10-FOLD CV METHOD 133 7.7 CONCLUSION 137 REFERENCES 137 8 HYPERPARAMETER TUNING OF ENSEMBLE CLASSIFIERS USING GRID SEARCH AND RANDOM SEARCH FOR PREDICTION OF HEART DISEASE 139
DHILSATH FATHIMA M. AND S. JUSTIN SAMUEL 8.1 INTRODUCTION 140 8.2 RELATED WORK 140 8.3 PROPOSED METHOD 142 8.3.1 DATASET DESCRIPTION 143 8.3.2 ENSEMBLE LEARNERS FOR CLASSIFICATION MODELING 144 8.3.2.1 BAGGING ENSEMBLE LEARNERS 145 8.3.2.2 BOOSTING ENSEMBLE LEARNER 147 8.3.3 HYPERPARAMETER TUNING OF ENSEMBLE LEARNERS 151 8.3.3.1 GRID SEARCH ALGORITHM 151 8.3.3.2 RANDOM SEARCH ALGORITHM 152 8.4 EXPERIMENTAL OUTCOMES AND ANALYSES 153 8.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF UCI HEART DISEASE DATASET 153 8.4.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULT OF ENSEMBLE LEARNERS AND PERFORMANCE COMPARISON 154 8.4.3 ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULT 154 8.5 CONCLUSION 157 REFERENCES 157 9 COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS PART III-RECENT DEVELOPMENT AND ADVANCED METHODOLOGIES 159
SANKAR PARISERUM PERUMAL, GANAPATHY SANNASI, SANTHOSH KUMAR S.V.N. AND KANNAN ARPUTHARAJ 9.1 INTRODUCTION: SIMULATION IN HEALTHCARE 160 9.2 NEED FOR A HEALTHCARE SIMULATION PROCESS 160 9.3 TYPES OF HEALTHCARE SIMULATIONS 161 9.4 AI IN HEALTHCARE SIMULATION 163 9.4.1 MACHINE LEARNING MODELS IN HEALTHCARE SIMULATION 163 9.4.1.1 MACHINE LEARNING MODEL FOR POST-SURGICAL RISK PREDICTION 163 9.4.2 DEEP LEARNING MODELS IN HEALTHCARE SIMULATION 169 9.4.2.1 BI-LSTM-BASED SURGICAL PARTICIPANT PREDICTION MODEL 170 9.5 CONCLUSION 174 REFERENCES 174 10 WOLFRAM'S CELLULAR AUTOMATA MODEL IN HEALTH INFORMATICS 179
SUTAPA SARKAR AND MOUSUMI SAHA 10.1 INTRODUCTION 179 10.2 CELLULAR AUTOMATA 181 10.3 APPLICATION OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA IN HEALTH SCIENCE 183 10.4 CELLULAR AUTOMATA IN HEALTH INFORMATICS 184 10.5 HEALTH INFORMATICS-DEEP LEARNING-CELLULAR AUTOMATA 190 10.6 CONCLUSION 191 REFERENCES 191 PART III: MACHINE LEARNING AND COVID PROSPECTIVE 193 11 COVID-19: CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES FOR ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION OF GLOBAL NOVEL CORONA VIRUS INFECTIONS DISEASE USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES 195
SACHIN KAMLEY, SHAILESH JALOREE, R.S. THAKUR AND KAPIL SAXENA 11.1 INTRODUCTION 195 11.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 196 11.3 DATA PRE-PROCESSING 197 11.4 PROPOSED METHODOLOGIES 198 11.4.1 SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION 198 11.4.2 ASSOCIATION RULE MINING 202 11.4.3 BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK 203 11.5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 204 11.6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPES 211 REFERENCES 212 12 SENTIMENT ANALYSIS ON SOCIAL MEDIA FOR EMOTIONAL PREDICTION DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC USING EFFICIENT MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH 215
SIVANANTHAM KALIMUTHU 12.1 INTRODUCTION 215 12.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 218 12.3 SYSTEM DESIGN 222 12.3.1 EXTRACTING FEATURE WITH WMAR 224 12.4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 229 12.5 CONCLUSION 232 REFERENCES 232 13 PRIMARY HEALTHCARE MODEL FOR REMOTE AREA USING SELF-ORGANIZING MAP NETWORK 235
SAYAN DAS AND JAYA SIL 13.1 INTRODUCTION 236 13.2 BACKGROUND DETAILS AND LITERATURE REVIEW 239 13.2.1 FUZZY SET 239 13.2.2 SELF-ORGANIZING MAPPING 239 13.3 METHODOLOGY 240 13.3.1 SEVERITY_FACTOR OF PATIENT 244 13.3.2 CLUSTERING BY SELF-ORGANIZING MAPPING 249 13.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 250 13.5 CONCLUSION 252 REFERENCES 252 14 FACE MASK DETECTION IN REAL-TIME VIDEO STREAM USING DEEP LEARNING 255
ALOK NEGI AND KRISHAN KUMAR 14.1 INTRODUCTION 256 14.2 RELATED WORK 257 14.3 PROPOSED WORK 258 14.3.1 DATASET DESCRIPTION 258 14.3.2 DATA PRE-PROCESSING AND AUGMENTATION 258 14.3.3 VGG19 ARCHITECTURE AND IMPLEMENTATION 259 14.3.4 FACE MASK DETECTION FROM REAL-TIME VIDEO STREAM 261 14.4 RESULTS AND EVALUATION 262 14.5 CONCLUSION 267 REFERENCES 267 15 A COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR SKIN DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING MACHINE/DEEP LEARNING ALGORITHMS 269
SWATHI JAMJALA NARAYANAN, PRANAV RAJ JAISWAL, ARIYAN CHOWDHURY, AMITHA MARIA JOSEPH AND SAURABH AMBAR 15.1 INTRODUCTION 270 15.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENTS 274 15.3 DATASET DESCRIPTION 274 15.4 MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUE USED FOR SKIN DISEASE IDENTIFICATION 276 15.4.1 LOGISTIC REGRESSION 277 15.4.1.1 LOGISTIC REGRESSION ASSUMPTION 277 15.4.1.2 LOGISTIC SIGMOID FUNCTION 277 15.4.1.3 COST FUNCTION AND GRADIENT DESCENT 278 15.4.2 SVM 279 15.4.3 RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS 281 15.4.4 DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM 283 15.4.5 CNN 286 15.4.6 RANDOM FOREST 288 15.5 RESULT AND ANALYSIS 290 15.6 CONCLUSION 291 REFERENCES 291 16 ASYMPTOTIC PATIENTS' HEALTHCARE MONITORING AND IDENTIFICATION OF HEALTH AILMENTS IN POST COVID-19 SCENARIO 297
PUSHAN K.R. DUTTA, AKSHAY VINAYAK AND SIMRAN KUMARI 16.1 INTRODUCTION 298 16.1.1 MOTIVATION 298 16.1.2 CONTRIBUTIONS 299 16.1.3 PAPER ORGANIZATION 299 16.1.4 SYSTEM MODEL PROBLEM FORMULATION 299 16.1.5 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 300 16.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS 301 16.2.1 HARDWARE COMPONENTS 301 16.2.1.1 MICROCONTROLLER 301 16.2.1.2 ESP8266 WI-FI SHIELD 301 16.2.2 SENSORS 301 16.2.2.1 TEMPERATURE SENSOR (LM 35) 301 16.2.2.2 ECG SENSOR (AD8232) 301 16.2.2.3 PULSE SENSOR 301 16.2.2.4 GPS MODULE (NEO 6M V2) 302 16.2.2.5 GYROSCOPE (GY-521) 302 16.2.3 SOFTWARE COMPONENTS 302 16.2.3.1 ARDUINO SOFTWARE 302 16.2.3.2 MYSQL DATABASE 302 16.2.3.3 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 302 16.3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND MATERIALS 303 16.3.1 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT 303 16.3.1.1 SYSTEM HARDWARE 303 16.3.1.2 CONNECTION AND CIRCUITRY 304 16.3.1.3 PROTOCOLS USED 306 16.3.1.4 LIBRARIES USED 307 16.4 SIMULATION RESULTS 307 16.5 CONCLUSION 310 16.6 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 310 REFERENCES 311 17 COVID-19 DETECTION SYSTEM USING CELLULAR AUTOMATA-BASED SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 313
RUPASHRI BARIK, M. NAZMA B. J. NASKAR AND SARBAJYOTI MALLIK 17.1 INTRODUCTION 313 17.2 LITERATURE SURVEY 314 17.2.1 CELLULAR AUTOMATA 315 17.2.2 IMAGE SEGMENTATION 316 17.2.3 DEEP LEARNING TECHNIQUES 316 17.3 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 317 17.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 320 17.5 CONCLUSION 322 REFERENCES 322 18 INTERESTING PATTERNS FROM COVID-19 DATASET USING GRAPH-BASED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTIVE MEASURES 325
ABHILASH C. B. AND KAVI MAHESH 18.1 INTRODUCTION 326 18.2 METHODS 326 18.2.1 DATA 326 18.3 GSA MODEL: GRAPH-BASED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 327 18.4 GRAPH-BASED ANALYSIS 329 18.4.1 MODELING YOUR DATA AS A GRAPH 329 18.4.2 RDF FOR KNOWLEDGE GRAPH 331 18.4.3 KNOWLEDGE GRAPH REPRESENTATION 331 18.4.4 RDF TRIPLE FOR KATRACE 333 18.4.5 CIPHER QUERY OPERATION ON KNOWLEDGE GRAPH 335 18.4.5.1 INTER-DISTRICT TRAVEL 335 18.4.5.2 PATIENT 653 SPREAD ANALYSIS 336 18.4.5.3 SPREAD ANALYSIS USING PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS 337 18.4.5.4 DELHI CONGREGATION ATTENDED THE PATIENT'S ANALYSIS 339 18.5 MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES 339 18.5.1 APRIORI ALGORITHM 339 18.5.2 DECISION TREE CLASSIFIER 341 18.5.3 SYSTEM GENERATED FACTS ON PANDAS 343 18.5.4 TIME SERIES MODEL 345 18.6 EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS 346 18.6.1 STATISTICAL INFERENCE 347 18.7 CONCLUSION 356 18.8 LIMITATIONS 356 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 356 ABBREVIATIONS 357 REFERENCES 357 PART IV: PROSPECTIVE OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN HEALTHCARE 359 19 CONCEPTUALIZING TOMORROW'S HEALTHCARE THROUGH DIGITIZATION 361
RIDDHI CHATTERJEE, RATULA RAY, SATYA RANJAN DASH AND OM PRAKASH JENA 19.1 INTRODUCTION 361 19.2 IMPORTANCE OF IOMT IN HEALTHCARE 362 19.3 CASE STUDY I: AN INTEGRATED TELEMEDICINE PLATFORM IN WAKE OF THE COVID-19 CRISIS 363 19.3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE STUDY 363 19.3.2 MERITS 363 19.3.3 PROPOSED DESIGN 363 19.3.3.1 HOMECARE 363 19.3.3.2 HEALTHCARE PROVIDER 365 19.3.3.3 COMMUNITY 367 19.4 CASE STUDY II: A SMART SLEEP DETECTION SYSTEM TO TRACK THE SLEEPING PATTERN IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SLEEP APNEA 371 19.4.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE STUDY 371 19.4.2 PROPOSED DESIGN 373 19.5 FUTURE OF SMART HEALTHCARE 375 19.6 CONCLUSION 375 REFERENCES 375 20 DOMAIN ADAPTATION OF PARTS OF SPEECH ANNOTATORS IN HINDI BIOMEDICAL CORPUS: AN NLP APPROACH 377
PITAMBAR BEHERA AND OM PRAKASH JENA 20.1 INTRODUCTION 377 20.1.1 COVID-19 PANDEMIC SITUATION 378 20.1.2 SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMEDICAL CORPUS 378 20.2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 379 20.2.1 BIOMEDICAL NLP RESEARCH 379 20.2.2 DOMAIN ADAPTATION 379 20.2.3 POS TAGGING IN HINDI 380 20.3 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES 380 20.3.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 380 20.3.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM 380 20.3.3 OBJECTIVES 381 20.4 METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN 381 20.4.1 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 381 20.4.2 METHOD OF DATA ANNOTATION 381 20.4.2.1 THE BIS TAGSET 381 20.4.2.2 ILCI SEMI-AUTOMATED ANNOTATION TOOL 382 20.4.2.3 IA AGREEMENT 383 20.4.3 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 383 20.4.3.1 THE THEORY OF SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES 384 20.4.3.2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 384 20.5 EVALUATION 385 20.5.1 ERROR ANALYSIS 386 20.5.2 FLEISS' KAPPA 388 20.6 ISSUES 388 20.7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 388 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 389 REFERENCES 389 21 APPLICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN HEALTHCARE 393
KHUSHI ROY, SUBHRA DEBDAS, SAYANTAN KUNDU, SHALINI CHOUHAN, SHIVANGI MOHANTY AND BISWARUP BISWAS 21.1 INTRODUCTION 393 21.2 EVOLUTION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING 395 21.3 OUTLINE OF NLP IN MEDICAL MANAGEMENT 396 21.4 LEVELS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN HEALTHCARE 397 21.5 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FROM A CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE 399 21.5.1 APPLICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN THE FIELD OF MEDICAL HEALTH RECORDS 399 21.5.2 USING NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING FOR LARGE-SAMPLE CLINICAL RESEARCH 400 21.6 OPENINGS AND DIFFICULTIES FROM A NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING POINT OF VIEW 401 21.6.1 METHODS FOR DEVELOPING SHAREABLE DATA 401 21.6.2 INTRINSIC EVALUATION AND REPRESENTATION LEVELS 402 21.6.3 BEYOND ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD DATA 403 21.7 ACTIONABLE GUIDANCE AND DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE 403 21.8 CONCLUSION 406 REFERENCES 406 INDEX 409

COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS THE BOOK PROVIDES THE STATE-OF-THE-ART INNOVATION, RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND IMPLEMENTS METHODOLOGICAL AND ALGORITHMIC SOLUTIONS TO DATA PROCESSING PROBLEMS, DESIGNING AND ANALYSING EVOLVING TRENDS IN HEALTH INFORMATICS, INTELLIGENT DISEASE PREDICTION, AND COMPUTER-AIDED DIAGNOSIS. COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE (CI) REFERS TO THE ABILITY OF COMPUTERS TO ACCOMPLISH TASKS THAT ARE NORMALLY COMPLETED BY INTELLIGENT BEINGS SUCH AS HUMANS AND ANIMALS. WITH THE RAPID ADVANCE OF TECHNOLOGY, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) TECHNIQUES ARE BEING EFFECTIVELY USED IN THE FIELDS OF HEALTH TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENTS, AVOID THE RISK OF FALSE DIAGNOSES, MAKE THERAPEUTIC DECISIONS, AND PREDICT THE OUTCOME IN MANY CLINICAL SCENARIOS. MODERN HEALTH TREATMENTS ARE FACED WITH THE CHALLENGE OF ACQUIRING, ANALYZING AND APPLYING THE LARGE AMOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE NECESSARY TO SOLVE COMPLEX PROBLEMS. COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN HEALTHCARE MAINLY USES COMPUTER TECHNIQUES TO PERFORM CLINICAL DIAGNOSES AND SUGGEST TREATMENTS. IN THE PRESENT SCENARIO OF COMPUTING, CI TOOLS PRESENT ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS THAT PERMIT THE UNDERSTANDING OF DATA IN DIFFICULT AND CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS. THE DESIRED RESULTS OF CI TECHNOLOGIES PROFIT MEDICAL FIELDS BY ASSEMBLING PATIENTS WITH THE SAME TYPES OF DISEASES OR FITNESS PROBLEMS SO THAT HEALTHCARE FACILITIES CAN PROVIDE EFFECTUAL TREATMENTS. THIS BOOK STARTS WITH THE FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER INTELLIGENCE AND THE TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH IT. CONTAINED IN THIS BOOK ARE STATE-OF-THE-ART METHODS OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND OTHER ALLIED TECHNIQUES USED IN THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM, AS WELL AS ADVANCES IN DIFFERENT CI METHODS THAT WILL CONFRONT THE PROBLEM OF EFFECTIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND STORAGE FACED BY HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS BOOK IS TO PROVIDE RESEARCHERS WITH A PLATFORM ENCOMPASSING STATE-OF-THE-ART INNOVATIONS; RESEARCH AND DESIGN; IMPLEMENTATION OF METHODOLOGICAL AND ALGORITHMIC SOLUTIONS TO DATA PROCESSING PROBLEMS; AND THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EVOLVING TRENDS IN HEALTH INFORMATICS, INTELLIGENT DISEASE PREDICTION AND COMPUTER-AIDED DIAGNOSIS. AUDIENCE THE BOOK IS OF INTEREST TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENTISTS, RESEARCHERS, ENGINEERS AND STUDENTS IN VARIOUS SETTINGS SUCH AS PHARMACEUTICAL & BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANIES, VIRTUAL ASSISTANTS DEVELOPING COMPANIES, MEDICAL IMAGING & DIAGNOSTICS CENTERS, WEARABLE DEVICE DESIGNERS, HEALTHCARE ASSISTANCE ROBOT MANUFACTURERS, PRECISION MEDICINE TESTERS, HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT, AND RESEARCHERS WORKING IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM.

BIOLOGY
COMPUTER SCIENCE
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING / TECHNOLOGY
MOLECULAR & CELL BIOLOGY
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