Libreria Herrero Books :: PHYTOTHERAPIES
error
Divisa


PHYTOTHERAPIES

EFFICACY, SAFETY, AND REGULATION

9781118268063 ::  PHYTOTHERAPIES
ISBN:

9781118268063

EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Edició:
Pàgines:672
Idioma:INGLES
P.V.P.: 180,30 € + 4% IVA = 187,51 €
Dto 5% Estalvies 9,38 €
Import final iva incl. 178,13 €
Entrega en 15 dies

COVERING FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYTOTHERAPY, THIS BOOK COMBINES PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND CHEMISTRY WITH CLINICAL ISSUES.

    HELPS READERS BETTER UNDERSTAND PHYTOTHERAPY AND LEARN THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AND HOW TO ANALYZE PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS
    DISCUSSES PHYTOTHERAPY IN MODERN MEDICINE, CHEMOPREVENTION OF DISEASE, AND  ALTERNATIVES TO WESTERN MEDICINES FOR SPECIFIC DISEASES
    CHAPTERS SUMMARIZES THE USES AND APPLICATIONS OF PHYTOMEDICINES, BY TYPE LIKE CHINESE, GRECO–ARAB, INDIAN, EUROPEAN, AND AYURVEDIC
    INCLUDES INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY PERSPECTIVES AND DISCUSSES EMERGING REGULATIONS FOR VARIOUS ESTABLISHED AND EMERGING MARKETS

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS XVII PREFACE XXI 1 PHYTOTHERAPIES PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 1
IQBAL RAMZAN AND GEORGE Q. LI 1.1 OVERVIEW OF PHYTOTHERAPY 1 1.1.1 DEFINITION 1 1.1.2 INTERNATIONAL TREND IN THE USAGE OF COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINES 2 1.2 PRECLINICAL RESEARCH ON PHYTOTHERAPIES 3 1.2.1 PHARMACOGNOSY AND QUALITY STANDARDIZATION OF PHYTOTHERAPIES 3 1.2.2 PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES AND IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS 4 1.2.3 APPLICATION OF PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS IN PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH 5 1.3 CLINICAL RESEARCH ON PHYTOTHERAPIES 6 1.3.1 EFFICACY OF POPULAR PHYTOTHERAPIES 6 1.3.2 CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES 7 1.3.3 FOOD NUTRITION AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH 7 1.4 SAFETY OF PHYTOTHERAPIES 8 1.5 PROFILE OF RESEARCH IN COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE 9 1.5.1 INTERNATIONAL PROFILE 9 1.5.2 AUSTRALIAN PROFILE OF RESEARCH IN COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINES 10 1.6 SUMMARY AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 12 REFERENCES 12 2 QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF PHYTOMEDICINES: KEY CONSIDERATIONS, METHODS, AND ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES 18
WAI ]PING YAU, CHEONG HIAN GOH, AND HWEE ]LING KOH 2.1 INTRODUCTION 18 2.2 KEY CONSIDERATIONS IN QC/QA OF PHYTOMEDICINES 20 2.2.1 IDENTIFICATION AND GOOD AGRICULTURAL AND COLLECTION PRACTICES (GACP) 20 2.2.2 CONTAMINATION 22 2.2.3 SUBSTITUTION 25 2.2.4 ADULTERATION 25 2.2.5 CONTENTS AND STANDARDIZATION 26 2.2.6 STABILITY 26 2.2.7 PROCESSING 26 2.3 METHODS FOR QC/QA OF PHYTOMEDICINES 27 2.3.1 MACROSCOPIC EVALUATION 27 2.3.2 MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION 27 2.3.3 PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS 29 2.3.4 CHEMICAL FINGERPRINTING 29 2.3.5 DNA FINGERPRINTING 35 2.3.6 OMICS TECHNOLOGY 36 2.4 CHALLENGES 37 2.5 CONCLUSIONS 40 REFERENCES 40 3 PRECLINICAL (IN VIVO) AND LABORATORY (IN VITRO) EVIDENCE OF PHYTOMEDICINE EFFICACY 49
MOHI IQBAL MOHAMMED ABDUL AND TOM HSUN ]WEI HUANG 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENT OF DRUGS FROM NATURE 49 3.2 USE OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO MODELS IN HERB DRUG RESEARCH: LEARNING THUS FAR 50 3.2.1 IN VITRO ASSAYS 50 3.2.2 IN VIVO ASSAYS 51 3.3 CARDIOVASCULAR ] AND STROKE ]RELATED DISEASES: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO FOCUS 53 3.3.1 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 53 3.3.2 STROKE 55 3.4 CONCLUSIONS 60 REFERENCES 61 4 CLINICAL EFFICACY TRIALS WITH NATURAL PRODUCTS AND HERBAL MEDICINES 65
CHRISTINA L. NANCE 4.1 INTRODUCTION 65 4.2 TRIALS IN VARIOUS DISEASE STATES 66 4.2.1 PROFILE: RCT OF NATURAL PRODUCT IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA) 66 4.2.2 ASTHMA 67 4.2.3 CANCER 68 4.2.4 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 68 4.2.5 DIABETES 69 4.2.6 DERMATOLOGY 70 4.2.7 GASTROENTEROLOGY 70 4.2.8 VIRAL INFECTIONS 72 4.3 NATURAL PRODUCT: GREEN TEA 73 4.3.1 GREEN TEA CATECHIN, EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE (EGCG) 73 4.4 EGCG CLINICAL TRIALS 75 4.4.1 POLYPHENON E 75 4.4.2 SAFETY, TOXICITY, AND PHARMACOKINETICS 75 4.4.3 METABOLISM 76 4.4.4 CLINICAL STUDIES 76 4.4.5 CANCER STUDIES 77 4.5 HUMAN CLINICAL STUDY: EGCG AND HIV ]1 INFECTION 78 4.5.1 TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE: EGCG: BENCH ]TO ]BEDSIDE 78 4.5.2 PHASE I CLINICAL TRIAL: POLYPHENON E IN HIV ]1 INFECTION 79 4.6 CONCLUSION 80 REFERENCES 80 5 NOVEL FORMULATIONS AND DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR PHYTOTHERAPIES 89
SHENGPENG WANG, MEIWAN CHEN, QI (TONY) ZHOU, AND HAK ]KIM CHAN 5.1 LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL FORMULATIONS FOR HERBAL MEDICINES 89 5.1.1 BARRIERS IN PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 89 5.1.2 CHALLENGES IN QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE 90 5.1.3 CONVENTIONAL FORMULATIONS LIMIT THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HERBAL MEDICINES 90 5.2 CRUCIAL ISSUES OF DEVELOPING NOVEL DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR HERBAL MEDICINES 91 5.2.1 HOW NOVEL DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOLLOW THE TRADITION? 91 5.2.2 PHARMACOKINETIC RESEARCH ON DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR HERBAL MEDICINES 92 5.2.3 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ON DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR HERBAL MEDICINES 92 5.3 NOVEL DELIVERY SYSTEMS OF HERBAL MEDICINES 93 5.3.1 PULMONARY DELIVERY OF HERBAL MEDICINES 93 5.3.2 NANOCARRIERS OF HERBAL MEDICINES FOR DRUG/GENE DELIVERY 94 5.3.3 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF NANOCARRIERS BY HERBAL MEDICINES 95 5.3.4 HERBAL MEDICINES AS PHOTOSENSITIZERS FOR PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY 95 5.4 SUMMARY 96 REFERENCES 97 6 PHYTOTHERAPIES USED BY INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS 101
BRADLEY S. SIMPSON AND SUSAN J. SEMPLE 6.1 INTRODUCTION 101 6.2 PHYTOTHERAPIES OF INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS 103 6.2.1 INTRODUCTION 103 6.2.2 PHILOSOPHY AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSMISSION 104 6.2.3 AILMENTS TREATED WITH MEDICINAL PLANTS 106 6.2.4 HOW PLANT MEDICINES HAVE BEEN USED 107 6.2.5 METHODS OF PLANT PREPARATION 109 6.2.6 PRIZED AND COMMONLY USED PLANTS IN AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS MEDICINE 111 6.3 CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT 114 6.3.1 SAFETY OF AUSTRALIAN PHYTOTHERAPIES 115 6.3.2 DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS MEDICINES 116 6.3.3 INTEGRATION OF TRADITIONAL AND WESTERN MEDICINE IN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS 117 6.4 CONCLUSIONS 117 REFERENCES 118 7 PHYTOTHERAPIES FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 122
MICHAEL RIEDER 7.1 TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 122 7.2 KEY CONCEPTS IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 124 7.3 HERBAL MEDICINE AND TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 126 7.4 ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYTOTHERAPY FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 130 7.5 PHYTOTHERAPIES DEVELOPED FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 131 7.6 HUANG QIN TANG AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHY906 134 7.7 GINSENG 136 7.8 MOVING FORWARD 138 REFERENCES 138 8 INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL GRECO ]ARAB AND ISLAMIC DIET AND HERBAL MEDICINES IN RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE 142
BASHAR SAAD 8.1 INTRODUCTION 142 8.2 FOOD THERAPY IN GRECO ]ARAB AND ISLAMIC MEDICINE 147 8.2.1 HONEY 148 8.2.2 OLIVE OIL 149 8.2.3 DATES 151 8.2.4 CAROB (CERATONIA SILIQUA) 152 8.2.5 FIG (FICUS CARICA) 153 8.2.6 POMEGRANATE (PUNICA GRANATUM) 153 8.2.7 GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AND ONION (ALLIUM CEPA) 154 8.2.8 EDIBLE WILD PLANTS 154 8.3 MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 8.3.1 BLACK SEED (NIGELLA SATIVA) 160 8.3.2 FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM ]GRAECUM) 167 8.3.3 SAGE (SALVIA OFFICINALIS) 168 8.3.4 KHELLA (AMMI VISNAGA) 168 8.3.5 MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM) 168 8.3.6 MARJORAM (ORIGANUM MAJORANA) 171 8.3.7 GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AND ONION (ALLIUM CEPA) 172 8.3.8 TAYUN (INULA VISCOSE) 172 8.3.9 ROCKET (ERUCA SATIVA) 172 8.3.10 NETTLE (URTICA DIOICA) 173 8.3.11 PEPPERMINT (MENTHA PIPERITA) 173 8.3.12 CHAMOMILE (CHAMOMILLA RECUTITA) 174 8.3.13 CORIANDER (CORIANDRUM SATIVUM) 175 8.3.14 ANISE (PIMPINELLA ANISUM) 175 8.3.15 ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS) 175 8.3.16 DEVIL S DUNG (FERULA ASAFETIDA) 176 8.3.17 GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) 176 REFERENCES 177 9 EVOLUTION OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN EUROPE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH MODERN MEDICINE 183
ELIZABETH M. WILLIAMSON AND KELVIN CHAN 9.1 BACKGROUND 183 9.2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 184 9.3 EUROPEAN HERBAL MEDICINE: RELATIONSHIP WITH MODERN MEDICINE 194 9.4 SUMMARY 194 REFERENCES 196 10 CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION AND CHEMISTRY OF PHYTOTHERAPEUTICS CONSTITUENTS 199
PEI H. CUI AND COLIN C. DUKE 10.1 INTRODUCTION 199 10.2 PHYTOCHEMICALS 201 10.2.1 ALKALOIDS 201 10.2.2 FLAVONOIDS 205 10.2.3 GLYCOSIDES AND SAPONINS 208 10.2.4 PHYTOSTEROLS 209 10.2.5 FATTY ACIDS 212 10.2.6 ESSENTIAL OILS 214 10.2.7 TERPENES 214 10.3 OTHER PHYTOCHEMICALS 215 10.4 MEDICINAL EFFECTS RELATING TO DIETARY INTAKE 217 10.4.1 ANTI ]OXIDANTS 217 10.4.2 OMEGA ]3 LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES 220 10.5 NATURAL PRODUCTS AS LEADS FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT 223 10.5.1 CATECHOL MOIETY OF PICEATANNOL: IMPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE 224 10.5.2 SAR STUDIES FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT 226 10.6 SUMMARY 230 REFERENCES 230 11 THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF GINSENOSIDES IN MANAGEMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS 236
XIAO ]JING ZHANG, HUANXING SU, YI–TAO WANG, AND JIAN–BO WAN 11.1 INTRODUCTION 236 11.2 CHEMICAL DIVERSITY OF GINSENOSIDES AND DISTRIBUTION 238 11.3 ANTI ]ATHEROSCLEROTIC EFFECTS OF GINSENOSIDES 240 11.4 UNDERLYING MECHANISMS OF GINSENOSIDES AGAINST ATHEROSCLEROSIS 244 11.4.1 REGULATION OF BLOOD LIPID PROFILE 244 11.4.2 ANTI ]OXIDANT ACTIVITY 251 11.4.3 ANTI ]VASCULAR INFLAMMATION 252 11.4.4 EFFECT ON VASCULAR CELLS 255 11.4.5 ANTI ]PLATELET EFFECTS 257 11.4.6 ANTI ]ANGIOGENESIS EFFECTS 257 11.5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 258 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 258 REFERENCES 258 12 PHYTOTHERAPY PHARMACOPHORES FOR MAJOR CELLULAR DRUG TARGETS 268
JENNIFER A. ONG, PAUL W. GROUNDWATER, AND DAVID E. HIBBS 12.1 INTRODUCTION 268 12.2 WHAT IS A PHARMACOPHORE? 269 12.3 PHARMACOPHORE MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS 270 12.4 PHARMACOPHORE MODELS FOR ANTICANCER DRUGS 285 12.5 PHARMACOPHORE MODELS FOR ANTI ]INFLAMMATORY DRUGS 290 12.6 PHARMACOPHORE MODELS FOR ANTI ]INFECTIVE DRUGS 297 12.7 PHARMACOPHORE MODELS FOR NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS 299 12.8 PHARMACOPHORE MODELS FOR MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS 305 12.9 CONCLUSIONS 309 REFERENCES 309 13 USE OF KAVA AS A PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC AGENT AND KAVA ]RELATED HEPATOTOXICITY 312
DONG FU AND IQBAL RAMZAN 13.1 INTRODUCTION 312 13.2 ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN KAVA 313 13.3 THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF KAVA 314 13.4 PHARMACOLOGY OF KAVA 314 13.4.1 ANTI ]PSYCHOTIC EFFECTS OF KAVA 314 13.4.2 ANTI ]CANCER EFFECTS OF KAVA 316 13.5 SIDE EFFECTS OF KAVA 317 13.6 HEPATOTOXICITY OF KAVA 318 13.6.1 INHIBITION OF CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES ACTIVITIES 318 13.6.2 REDUCTION OF LIVER GLUTATHIONE 319 13.6.3 INDUCTION OF HEPATIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES 320 13.6.4 INHIBITION OF CYCLOOXYGENASE ENZYME ACTIVITY 320 13.6.5 INHIBITION OF HEPATIC TRANSPORTERS 321 13.6.6 DAMAGE OF HEPATIC MITOCHONDRIA 321 13.7 SUMMARY AND FUTURE CHALLENGES 322 REFERENCES 323 14 PHYTOTHERAPIES AS NEW DRUG SOURCES: GOSSYPOL AND CURCUMIN 330
VIVIAN WAN YU LIAO, RAJESHWAR NARLAWAR, DAVID E. HIBBS, AND PAUL W. GROUNDWATER 14.1 BOTANICAL SOURCES OF GOSSYPOL AND CURCUMIN 330 14.2 STEREOISOMERISM, TAUTOMERISM, AND REACTIVITY 332 14.2.1 STEREOISOMERISM 332 14.2.2 TAUTOMERISM 333 14.2.3 REACTIVITY 333 14.3 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GOSSYPOL AND ITS ANALOGUES 337 14.3.1 ANTIFERTILITY 337 14.3.2 ANTICANCER 338 14.3.3 ANTIVIRAL 341 14.3.4 ANTIMALARIAL 345 14.3.5 OTHER BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY 346 14.4 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF CURCUMIN AND ITS ANALOGUES 346 14.4.1 INTRODUCTION 346 14.4.2 ANTICANCER 348 14.4.3 ANTI ]INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT 354 14.4.4 CURCUMIN IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES 357 14.4.5 ANTIMALARIAL 359 14.4.6 OTHER BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY 360 REFERENCES 360 15 PHYTOTHERAPIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY AND DIABETES 370
MICHEL RAPINSKI AND ALAIN CUERRIER 15.1 INTRODUCTION 370 15.2 PLANTS FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN PHARMACOPOEIA 372 15.3 PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING: PROVIDING EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR PHYTOTHERAPIES 379 15.3.1 DIABETES 379 15.3.2 OBESITY 384 15.4 COMMUNITY ]BASED PARTICIPATION: DEVELOPING PHYTOTHERAPIES FROM TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE 385 15.5 CONCLUSIONS 387 REFERENCES 387 16 PHYTOTHERAPEUTICS FOR CANCER THERAPY 394
DANIEL M. ]Y. SZE, HAO LIU, MAUREEN V. BOOST, RAIMOND WONG, AND STEPHEN SAGAR 16.1 INTRODUCTION 394 16.2 ANTICANCER PHYTOTHERAPEUTICS WITH NK ENHANCEMENT 395 16.2.1 EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY USEFUL PHYTOCOMPOUNDS ON CANCER PATIENTS NK CELL IMMUNITY, QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL), AND OVERALL SURVIVAL 395 16.2.2 COMMONLY USED PHYTOTHERAPEUTICS IN CANCER MANAGEMENT 395 16.2.3 PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC FORMULAE FOR CANCER VIA NK MODULATION 409 16.3 CONCLUSIONS 423 REFERENCES 425 17 PHYTOMEDICINES FOR FATTY LIVER DISEASE AND FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS 429
GEORGE Q. LI, MOON ]SUN KIM, FANGMING JIN, AND JUN ]LAE CHO 17.1 INTRODUCTION 429 17.2 PHYTOMEDICINES FOR FLD 430 17.2.1 INTRODUCTION AND PHARMACOTHERAPY 430 17.2.2 TREATMENT OF FATTY LIVER WITH HERBAL MEDICINES 433 17.2.3 COMMON HERBS USED IN FATTY LIVER MANAGEMENT 433 17.3 PHYTOMEDICINES FOR IBS 439 17.3.1 INTRODUCTION AND PHARMACOTHERAPY 439 17.3.2 TREATMENT OF IBS IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE 440 17.3.3 COMMON HERBS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF IBS 440 17.4 PHYTOMEDICINES FOR CONSTIPATION 444 17.4.1 TREATMENT OF CONSTIPATION WITH HERBAL MEDICINES 445 17.4.2 COMMON HERBS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CONSTIPATION 446 17.5 SUMMARY AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 448 REFERENCES 448 18 PHYTOMEDICINES FOR INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS 464
SIGRUN CHRUBASIK ]HAUSMANN 18.1 TRADITIONAL MEDICINES FOR INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS IN EUROPE 464 18.2 TWENTY ]FIRST ]CENTURY UPDATE ON PAIDS 465 18.3 ORAL EXTRACTS FROM SALIX SPECIES 465 18.3.1 EFFICACY 467 18.3.2 SAFETY 467 18.4 ORAL EXTRACTS FROM HARPAGOPHYTUM PROCUMBENS 468 18.4.1 EFFICACY 469 18.4.2 SAFETY 469 18.5 ORAL AVOCADO SOYBEAN UNSAPONIFIABLES 469 18.5.1 EFFICACY 470 18.5.2 SAFETY 473 18.6 ORAL EXTRACTS FROM TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII 473 18.6.1 EFFICACY 473 18.6.2 SAFETY 474 18.7 ORAL PAIDS CONTAINING UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 475 18.7.1 EFFICACY 475 18.7.2 SAFETY 475 18.8 OTHER ORAL PAIDS 476 18.9 TOPICAL PAIDS 477 18.9.1 EFFICACY 478 18.9.2 SAFETY 478 REFERENCES 478 19 PHYTOTHERAPIES FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES: ARE THESE REALLY USEFUL? 483
GAIL B. MAHADY, GABRIELLE ESCALANTE, POOJA MIKKILINENI, LAURA J. MAHADY, TEMITOPE O. LAWAL, AND BOLANLE A. ADENIYI THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 483 19.1 INTRODUCTION 484 19.2 HISTORICAL PRECEDENT FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS 486 19.3 ARE PHYTOTHERAPIES USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES? 487 19.3.1 CRANBERRY (VACCINIUM MACROCARPON AIT) 488 19.3.2 TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA L.) AS AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT 492 19.3.3 GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE L.) AS AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT 494 19.4 NATURALLY OCCURRING COMPOUNDS THAT MAY REDUCE ZOONOSIS 495 19.5 SYNERGISTIC AND ADDITIVE EFFECTS WITH ANTIBIOTICS 496 19.6 NEW EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND THOSE WITH NO KNOWN TREATMENTS 496 19.7 SARS 497 19.8 REDUCING MRSA CARRIAGE 498 19.9 CONCLUSIONS 499 REFERENCES 500 20 PHYTOMEDICINES FOR CNS DISORDERS: SAFETY ISSUES FOR USE WITH ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS 504
SOPHIA YUI KAU FONG, ROSINA YAU MOK, QIONG GAO, YIN CHEONG WONG, AND ZHONG ZUO 20.1 INTRODUCTION 504 20.2 METHODOLOGY OF SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH 506 20.3 PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS 506 20.3.1 CARBAMAZEPINE 507 20.3.2 PHENYTOIN 507 20.3.3 VALPROATE 510 20.3.4 DIAZEPAM 511 20.3.5 PHENOBARBITONE 511 20.3.6 NEWER GENERATIONS OF ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS 512 20.4 PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS 512 20.4.1 ANTIEPILEPTIC EFFECTS 513 20.4.2 SEDATIVE EFFECTS 517 20.4.3 ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS 520 20.4.4 MEMORY IMPAIRMENT EFFECTS 520 20.4.5 MOTOR INCOORDINATION EFFECTS 523 20.5 CONCLUSIONS 524 REFERENCES 524 21 PHYTOTHERAPIES: DRUG INTERACTIONS IN CANCER 536
ANDREW J. MCLACHLAN AND STEPHEN J. CLARKE 21.1 INTRODUCTION 536 21.2 USE OF HERBAL AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINES BY PEOPLE LIVING WITH CANCER 537 21.3 MECHANISMS OF PHYTOTHERAPY DRUG INTERACTIONS 538 21.4 SELECTED EXAMPLES OF PHYTOTHERAPY MEDICINES THAT HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO CAUSE DRUG INTERACTIONS IN CANCER 540 21.4.1 BLACK COHOSH (CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA) 540 21.4.2 ECHINACEA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA) 541 21.4.3 FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM) 541 21.4.4 GINKGO BILOBA 542 21.4.5 ASIAN GINSENG (PANAX GINSENG) 542 21.4.6 GREEN TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) 543 21.4.7 KAVA KAVA (PIPER METHYSTICUM FORST. F.) 544 21.4.8 LIQUORICE (GLYCYRRHIZA URALENSIS) 544 21.4.9 MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM) 544 21.4.10 ST. JOHN S WORT (HYPERICUM PERFORATUM) 545 21.4.11 VALERIAN (VALERIANA OFFICINALIS) 546 21.5 FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: NEED FOR EVIDENCE AND ADVICE TO CANCER PATIENTS AND PHYSICIANS 546 21.6 CONCLUSIONS 547 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 547 CONFLICT OF INTEREST 547 REFERENCES 547 22 QUALITY USE OF MEDICINES: CONSIDERATIONS IN PHYTOTHERAPY 554
LYNN WEEKES 22.1 INTRODUCTION 554 22.1.1 JUDICIOUS USE 554 22.1.2 APPROPRIATE SELECTION 555 22.1.3 SAFE AND EFFECTIVE USE 555 22.1.4 THE QUM PARADIGM 555 22.2 RELEVANCE OF QUM FOR HERBAL MEDICINES 556 22.2.1 IS THE QUM FRAMEWORK RELEVANT FOR HERBAL THERAPIES? 556 22.3 USE OF PHYTOTHERAPIES BY CONSUMERS 558 22.4 CONSUMER ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT HERBAL MEDICINES 559 22.4.1 HOLISTIC VIEW OF HEALTH AND WELL ]BEING 559 22.4.2 IT IS NATURAL, SO IT MUST BE SAFE 560 22.5 APPLYING THE QUM FRAMEWORK TO PHYTOTHERAPIES 561 22.5.1 JUDICIOUS USE 561 22.5.2 APPROPRIATE SELECTION 562 22.5.3 SAFE AND EFFECTIVE USE 563 22.5.4 ADVERSE REACTIONS 563 22.5.5 INTERACTIONS 564 22.5.6 ALLERGY 565 22.5.7 SAFE FORMULATION 565 22.5.8 EFFECTIVENESS 565 22.6 BUILDING BLOCKS FOR QUALITY USE OF HERBAL MEDICINES 566 22.6.1 OBJECTIVE INFORMATION AND ETHICAL PROMOTION 566 22.6.2 EDUCATION AND TRAINING 568 22.6.3 SYSTEMS AND INTERVENTIONS 569 22.6.4 SHARED DECISION MAKING 569 22.7 CONCLUSION 570 REFERENCES 570 23 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND PATENT ISSUES WITH PHYTOTHERAPY PRODUCTS 573
GINT SILINS, JENNIFER TAN, AND KELVIN CHAN 23.1 INTRODUCTION 573 23.1.1 HISTORICAL AND CURRENT ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 573 23.1.2 TYPES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS 574 23.1.3 WORLDWIDE IP LAWS HAVE YET TO BE HARMONIZED 575 23.2 IP RIGHTS PHYTO ]INDUSTRY 575 23.2.1 IP PROTECTION FOR PHYTOTHERAPY PRODUCTS AND PHYTOTHERAPIES 575 23.2.2 PATENTS 576 23.2.3 PATENTS AS IP ASSETS 576 23.2.4 PATENTS FOR PROTECTING PHYTO ]INVENTIONS 577 23.2.5 EXCLUSIONS TO PATENTABILITY 577 23.3 BRIEF OVERVIEW OF PATENTS AND THE PATENTING PROCESS 578 23.3.1 PATENT SEARCHING 578 23.3.2 PATENT OWNERSHIP 578 23.3.3 PATENT FILING 579 23.3.4 EXAMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION 579 23.3.5 ALLOWANCE AND GRANT 579 23.3.6 EXTENSION OF PATENT TERM 579 23.4 OTHER TYPES OF IP RIGHTS 585 23.4.1 TRADE SECRETS 585 23.4.2 REGULATORY EXCLUSIVITY AND RESTRICTED THIRD ]PARTY ACCESS 585 23.4.3 PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION 586 23.4.4 INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS 586 23.4.5 TRADEMARKS 586 23.5 PATENTING TRENDS FOR PHYTOTHERAPEUTICS 587 23.6 TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND IP RIGHTS 587 DISCLAIMER 589 REFERENCES 590 24 INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY STATUS OF PHYTOTHERAPIES 593
ERNEST V. LINEK 24.1 INTRODUCTION 593 24.1.1 COUNTRY LAW SOURCES 594 24.1.2 COMMON REQUIREMENT: GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES 594 24.2 SPECIFIC COUNTRY REGULATIONS 596 24.2.1 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN AUSTRALIA 596 24.2.2 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN CANADA 597 24.2.3 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN CHINA 604 24.2.4 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) 609 24.2.5 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN INDIA 616 24.2.6 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN JAPAN 619 24.2.7 CURRENT REGULATIONS: UNITED KINGDOM 622 24.2.8 CURRENT REGULATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 625 24.3 FUTURE OF PHYTOTHERAPIES: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) 631 FURTHER READING 634 INDEX 635

BIOLOGIA
MEDICINA INTERNA
QUIMICA
Llibres relacionats
ISBN: 9781119432449 PRECISION MEDICINE IN ONCOLOGYPRECISION MEDICINE IN ONCOLOGY
9781119432449
Octubre 2020

176.79€ S/I
167,95€ S/I

ISBN: 9783527324125 EXPLORING IMMUNOLOGYEXPLORING IMMUNOLOGY
9783527324125
Abril 2012

40.88€ S/I
38,84€ S/I
ISBN: 9780471253921 PROTOCOLS IN GENERAL SURGERYPROTOCOLS IN GENERAL SURGERY
9780471253921
Noviembre 2020

78.70€ S/I
74,77€ S/I

ISBN: 9781118821305 SAFETY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN MRISAFETY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN MRI
9781118821305
Noviembre 2020

175.62€ S/I
166,84€ S/I

ISBN: 9781119482666 FEMALE SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERSFEMALE SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS
9781119482666
Noviembre 2020

146.35€ S/I
139,03€ S/I