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OPEN AND TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS

ULTRA–HIGH SEPARATION EFFICIENCIES IN CAPILLARIES, MICROCHIPS AND SLABS

9781119539407 ::  OPEN AND TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS
ISBN:

9781119539407

EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
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Pàgines:288
Idioma:INGLES
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EN STOCK / ENVIAMENT EN 8-10 DIAS

PREFACE XIIIACRONYMS XVSYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS XVIIINTRODUCTION XXI1 SOLVENTS AND BUFFER SOLUTIONS 11.1 WATER AS A SOLVENT 11.1.1 TEMPERATURE AND BROWNIAN MOTION 11.1.2 ELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY OF WATER 21.1.3 DISSOLUTION 31.1.4 SOLVATION 31.1.5 DISSOCIATION 51.1.6 IONIZATION 71.1.7 HYDROPHILICITY, HYDROPHOBICITY, AND LOGP 81.1.8 GIBBS FREE ENERGY CHANGE 91.1.9 ACID IONIZATION CONSTANTS 101.1.10 CONCENTRATION-PH AND PA-PH DIAGRAMS 121.1.11 HENDERSON-HASSELBALCH EQUATION 131.1.12 BUFFER CAPACITY 151.2 BINARY MIXTURES AND OTHER SOLVENTS 18REFERENCES 192 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROPHORESIS 212.1 INTRODUCTION 212.2 THE PLATFORMS 212.3 ELECTROPHORESIS 232.4 ELECTROPHORESIS OF SINGLE MOLECULES 272.5 IONIC LIMITING MOBILITY 302.6 BANDS, FRONTS, PEAKS, AND ZONES 322.6.1 BANDS AND PEAKS 322.6.2 FRONTS 372.6.3 ZONES 382.7 THE ISOELECTRIC POINT 382.7.1 ISOELECTRIC POINT OF MOLECULES 382.7.2 ISOELECTRIC POINT OF NANO AND MICROPARTICLES 412.8 TURBULENT AND LAMINAR FLOW 422.8.1 THE DRIVING FORCES OF FLUID FLOW 422.8.2 TURBULENCE 432.8.3 LAMINAR FLOW IN CYLINDRICAL CAPILLARIES 432.8.3.1 PRESSURE DRIVEN FLOW 432.8.3.2 GRAVITY DRIVEN FLOW 452.8.3.3 CAPILLARY ACTION 452.8.4 LAMINAR FLOW IN MICROCHANNELS 462.8.4.1 PRESSURE DRIVEN FLOW 462.8.4.2 GRAVITY DRIVEN FLOW 492.9 ELECTROOSMOSIS 502.9.1 EOF IN CYLINDRICAL CAPILLARIES 502.9.1.1 VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE 532.9.1.2 COMBINED PRESSURE DRIVEN FLOW AND EOF 532.9.2 EOF IN RECTANGULAR MICROCHANNELS 532.10 SUPRESSION OF EOF 542.10.1 PROTOCOLS FOR EOF SUPPRESSION 542.10.2 ADVANTAGES OF SUPPRESSING EOF WITH COVALENT COATINGS 562.10.3 MEASURING SMALL AND LARGE EOF VELOCITIES 562.11 JOULE EFFECT AND HEAT DISSIPATION 572.12 TEMPERATURE PROFILES 582.13 MOLECULAR DIFFUSION AND BAND BROADENING 622.14 SAMPLE STACKING AND BAND COMPRESSION 642.15 SEPARATION MODES 692.15.1 AFFINITY ELECTROPHORESIS 692.15.2 ELECTROCHROMATOGRAPHY 712.15.3 END-LABELED FREE-SOLUTION ELECTROPHORESIS 722.15.4 FREE-SOLUTION ELECTROPHORESIS 732.15.5 ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING 762.15.6 ISOTACHOPHORESIS 772.15.7 MICROEMULSION ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY 792.15.8 MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY 792.15.9 SIEVING ELECTROPHORESIS 812.15.10 SUITABLE SEPARATION MODES FOR EACH CLASS OF ANALYTES 82REFERENCES 843 OPEN LAYOUT 893.1 INTRODUCTION 893.2 CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS 893.3 MICROCHIP ELECTROPHORESIS 923.4 SLAB ELECTROPHORESIS 943.5 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR OPEN LAYOUTS 973.5.1 FROM SINGLE BANDS OR PEAKS 983.5.1.1 NUMBER OF THEORETICAL PLATES 983.5.1.2 NUMBER OF THEORETICAL PLATES PER UNIT TIME SQUARED 993.5.1.3 HEIGHT EQUIVALENT OF A THEORETICAL PLATE 993.5.2 FROM TWO NEIGHBORING BANDS OR PEAKS 1003.5.2.1 RESOLUTION 1043.5.2.2 RESOLUTION PER UNIT TIME 1063.5.3 FROM N BANDS AND N PEAKS 1073.5.3.1 BAND CAPACITY 1073.5.3.2 BAND CAPACITY PER UNIT OF TIME 1083.5.3.3 PEAK CAPACITY 1083.5.3.4 PEAK CAPACITY PER UNIT TIME 109REFERENCES 1094 TOROIDAL LAYOUT 1154.1 INTRODUCTION 1154.2 TOROIDAL CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS 1174.3 TOROIDAL MICROCHIP ELECTROPHORESIS 1204.4 TOROIDAL SLAB ELECTROPHORESIS 1214.5 FOLDING GEOMETRIES 1214.6 MICROHOLES AND CONNECTIONS 1254.7 RESERVOIRS 1264.8 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MODES OF OPERATION 1274.8.1 THE GRAVIMETRIC METHOD 1284.8.2 THE HYDRODYNAMIC METHOD 1294.8.3 THE ELECTROKINETIC METHOD 1294.8.4 USING MICROVALVES OR MICROCAPS 1304.9 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR TOROIDAL LAYOUTS 1304.9.1 FROM SINGLE BANDS OR PEAKS 1314.9.1.1 NUMBER OF THEORETICAL PLATES 1314.9.1.2 NUMBER OF PLATES PER UNIT TIME SQUARED 1314.9.1.3 HEIGHT EQUIVALENT OF A THEORETICAL PLATE 1324.9.2 FROM TWO NEIGHBORING BANDS OR PEAKS 1324.9.2.1 RESOLUTION 1324.9.2.2 RESOLUTION PER UNIT TIME 1334.9.3 FROM N BANDS OR N PEAKS 1334.9.3.1 BAND CAPACITY 1334.9.3.2 BAND CAPACITY PER UNIT TIME 1344.9.3.3 PEAK CAPACITY 1344.9.3.4 PEAK CAPACITY PER UNIT TIME 135REFERENCES 1365 CONFRONTING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 1375.1 INTRODUCTION 1375.2 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FROM EXPERIMENTAL DATA 1375.3 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS PREDICTED FROM OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS 139REFERENCES 1466 HIGH VOLTAGE MODULES AND DISTRIBUTORS 1476.1 INTRODUCTION 1476.2 HIGH VOLTAGES IN OPEN LAYOUTS 1476.3 HIGH VOLTAGES IN TOROIDAL LAYOUTS 1486.3.1 THE IDEAL TOROIDAL LENGTH 1486.3.2 HIGH VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION MADE BY FOUR MODULES 1506.3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION BASED ON RELAYS 1526.3.4 HIGH VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION BASED ON SLIDING SWITCHES 1536.3.5 HIGH VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION BASED ON ROTATING SWITCHES 155REFERENCES 1567 HEAT REMOVAL AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL 1577.1 INTRODUCTION 1577.2 TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS ARE UNAVOIDABLE 1597.3 TEMPERATURE HAS MULTIPLE EFFECTS 1607.4 ELECTRICAL INSULATORS WITH HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 1657.5 COOLING STRATEGIES USED IN CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS 1677.5.1 ADVANTAGES OF A SYMMETRIC COOLING GEOMETRY 1707.6 COOLING STRATEGIES USED IN MICROCHIP ELECTROPHORESIS 1777.6.1 ADVANTAGES OF A SYMMETRIC COOLING GEOMETRY 1777.7 COOLING STRATEGIES USED IN SLAB ELECTROPHORESIS 1777.7.1 ADVANTAGES OF A RATIONAL COOLING STRATEGY 1787.8 SHEAR RATE OF THE COOLANT 1787.9 FINAL CONSIDERATIONS 179REFERENCES 1808 DETECTORS 1818.1 INTRODUCTION 1818.2 FIXED POINT DETECTORS 1828.3 SPATIAL DETECTORS (SCANNERS AND CAMERAS) 1848.4 DERIVATIZATION REACTIONS 1858.4.1 FLUOROGENIC REACTIONS 1868.4.2 LABELING REACTIONS 1898.4.3 IMPROVING SELECTIVITY THROUGH DERIVATIZATION 189REFERENCES 1919 APPLICATIONS OF TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS 1939.1 INTRODUCTION 193REFERENCES 197APPENDIX A NOMENCLATURE 199REFERENCES 203APPENDIX B SPECIES CONCENTRATION IN BUFFER SOLUTIONS 205B.1 ACIDS (HNA) 206B.1.1 MONOPROTIC ACIDS (N = 1) 206B.1.2 DIPROTIC ACIDS (N = 2) 206B.1.3 TRIPROTIC ACIDS (N = 3) 206B.1.4 TETRAPROTIC ACIDS (N = 4) 206B.2 BASES (B) 207B.2.1 MONOPROTONATED BASES (N = 1) 207B.2.2 DIPROTONATED BASES (N = 2) 207B.2.3 TRIPROTONATED BASES (N = 3) 207B.2.4 TETRAPROTONATED BASES (N = 4) 207REFERENCES 208APPENDIX C ELECTROPHORESIS 209C.1 FREE-SOLUTION ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY 209C.1.1 CLASSICAL TRAJECTORIES 210C.2 MOBILITY DEPENDENCE ON TEMPERATURE 212C.3 TRANSIENT REGIMES 213C.3.1 ELETROPHORETIC TRANSIENT REGIME (?E) 214C.3.2 HARDWARE TRANSIENT REGIME (?O) 214REFERENCES 216APPENDIX D ELECTROOSMOSIS 217D.1 SLAB AND MICROCHIPS - CARTESIAN COORDINATES 217D.2 CAPILLARIES - CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 220D.3 ZETA POTENTIAL 223REFERENCES 224APPENDIX E MOLECULAR DIFFUSION 227E.1 THE DIFFUSION EQUATION 227E.2 THE PROPAGATOR 229E.3 APPLICATION OF PROPAGATORS TO BANDS AT REST 230E.4 APPLICATION OF PROPAGATORS TO BANDS IN MOVEMENT 232E.5 BANDS AND PEAKS 233REFERENCES 234APPENDIX F POISEUILLE COUNTER-FLOW 235F.1 INTRODUCTION 235F.2 VELOCITY LEVEL CONTOURS 236F.3 TEMPERATURE LEVEL CONTOURS 237F.4 EQUALIZING ?MAX AND ?E 238REFERENCE 240APPENDIX G CYCLIC ON-COLUMN BAND COMPRESSION 241G.1 INTRODUCTION 241G.2 EFFECT OF CYCLIC BAND COMPRESSION EVENTS ON VARIANCE 242G.3 NUMBER OF THEORETICAL PLATES 243G.4 NUMBER OF THEORETICAL PLATES PER UNIT TIME 244G.5 HEIGHT EQUIVALENT OF A THEORETICAL PLATE 244G.6 RESOLUTION 245G.7 RESOLUTION PER UNIT TIME 246G.8 BAND CAPACITY 246G.9 BAND CAPACITY PER UNIT TIME 247G.10 DETAILED CALCULATION OF ?2, X, FN, AND HN 249G.10.1 PEAK VARIANCE 249G.10.1.1 COMPRESSION EVENTS BEFORE EACH DETECTION 249G.10.1.2 COMPRESSION EVENTS AFTER EACH DETECTION 250G.10.2 INTER-PEAK SPACING ( X) 251G.10.2.1 COMPRESSION EVENTS BEFORE EACH DETECTION 251G.10.2.2 COMPRESSION EVENTS AFTER EACH DETECTION 251G.10.3 CALCULATION OF THE VALUES OF HN 251G.10.3.1 COMPRESSION EVENTS BEFORE EACH DETECTION 252G.10.3.2 COMPRESSION EVENTS AFTER EACH DETECTION 252REFERENCES 253INDEX 255

PRESENTS THE THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TOROIDAL CAPILLARY, MICROCHIP, AND SLAB ELECTROPHORESIS TO ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS ACROSS A RANGE OF DISCIPLINES WRITTEN BY ONE OF THE DEVELOPERS OF TOROIDAL CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS (TCE), THIS BOOK IS THE FIRST TO PRESENT THIS NOVEL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE, IN DETAIL, TO THE FIELD OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. THE EXACT EXPRESSIONS OF SEPARATION EFFICIENCY, RESOLUTION, PEAK CAPACITY, AND MANY OTHER PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF THE OPEN AND TOROIDAL LAYOUTS ARE PRESENTED AND COMPARED. FEATURING NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS THROUGHOUT, OPEN AND TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS: ULTRA-HIGH SEPARATION EFFICIENCIES IN CAPILLARIES, MICROCHIPS AND SLABS OFFERS CHAPTERS COVERING: SOLVENTS AND BUFFER SOLUTIONS; FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROPHORESIS; OPEN LAYOUT; AND TOROIDAL LAYOUT. CONFRONTING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IS NEXT, FOLLOWED BY CHAPTERS ON HIGH VOLTAGE MODULES AND DISTRIBUTORS; HEAT REMOVAL AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL; AND DETECTORS. THE BOOK FINISHES WITH AN EXAMINATION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS. THE FIRST BOOK TO OFFER A DETAILED ACCOUNT OF TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS--WRITTEN BY ONE OF ITS CREATORS COMPARES THE TOROIDAL LAYOUTS WITH THE WELL-ESTABLISHED OPEN LAYOUTS OF THE THREE MOST USED PLATFORMS (CAPILLARY, MICROCHIP, AND SLAB)PROVIDES SOLUTIONS TO MANY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ISSUES ARISING IN ELECTROMIGRATION TECHNIQUES AND DISCUSSES THE VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTORS AND DETECTORS THAT ARE COMPATIBLE WITH THE TOROIDAL LAYOUTSRICHLY ILLUSTRATED WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF USEFUL EQUATIONS SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IMPORTANT OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS AND THE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OPEN AND TOROIDAL ELECTROPHORESIS IS AIMED AT METHOD DEVELOPERS AND SEPARATION SCIENTISTS WORKING IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS, AND FOOD ANALYSIS, AS WELL AS THOSE IN PHARMACOLOGY, DISEASE BIOMARKER APPLICATIONS, AND NUCLEIC ACID ANALYSIS USING THE CAPILLARY, MICROCHIP, OR SLAB PLATFORM. IT WILL ALSO BENEFIT UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDENTS OF INORGANIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, ORGANIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, BIOANALYSIS, PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, CLINICAL SCIENCES, AND FOOD ANALYSIS.

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