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HUMAN DRUG METABOLISM

9781119458562 ::  HUMAN DRUG METABOLISM
ISBN:

9781119458562

EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
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Pàgines:680
Idioma:INGLES
P.V.P.: 85,79 € + 4% IVA = 89,22 €
Dto 5% Estalvies 4,46 €
Import final iva incl. 84,76 €
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PREFACE XV1 INTRODUCTION 11.1 THERAPEUTIC WINDOW 11.1.1 INTRODUCTION 11.1.2 THERAPEUTIC INDEX 31.1.3 CHANGES IN DOSAGE 31.1.4 CHANGES IN RATE OF REMOVAL 41.2 CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG CONCENTRATION CHANGES 41.2.1 DRUG FAILURE 41.2.2 DRUG TOXICITY 51.3 CLEARANCE 61.3.1 DEFINITIONS 61.3.2 CLEARANCE AND ELIMINATION 71.3.3 BIOTRANSFORMATION PRIOR TO ELIMINATION 71.3.4 INTRINSIC CLEARANCE 81.3.5 CLEARANCE: INFLUENCING FACTORS 81.4 FIRST PASS AND DRUG EXTRACTION 91.4.1 FIRST PASS: GUT CONTRIBUTION 91.4.2 FIRST PASS: HEPATIC CONTRIBUTION 101.4.3 FIRST PASS: LOW?EXTRACTION DRUGS 121.5 FIRST PASS AND PLASMA DRUG LEVELS 131.5.1 INTRODUCTION 131.5.2 CHANGES IN CLEARANCE AND PLASMA LEVELS 141.6 DRUG AND XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM 14REFERENCES 152 DRUG BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL SYSTEMS - ORIGINS AND AIMS 172.1 BIOTRANSFORMING ENZYMES 172.2 THREAT OF LIPOPHILIC HYDROCARBONS 182.3 CELL COMMUNICATION 192.3.1 SIGNAL MOLECULE EVOLUTION 192.3.2 LIPOPHILIC HYDROCARBONS AS SIGNAL MOLECULES 202.4 FALSE SIGNAL MOLECULES: BIOPROTECTION 222.4.1 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION 222.4.2 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 232.4.3 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: COSMETIC AND NUTRACEUTICAL ASPECTS 242.4.4 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: MICRORNAS 252.5 SITES OF BIOTRANSFORMING ENZYMES 262.6 BIOTRANSFORMATION AND XENOBIOTIC CELL ENTRY 272.6.1 ROLE OF THE LIVER 272.6.2 DRUG AND XENOBIOTIC UPTAKE: TRANSPORTER SYSTEMS 292.6.3 HEPATIC AND GUT UPTAKE (INFLUX) TRANSPORTER SYSTEMS 302.6.4 AIMS OF BIOTRANSFORMATION 312.6.5 TASK OF BIOTRANSFORMATION 322.6.6 PHASE'S I-III OF BIOTRANSFORMATION: DESCRIPTIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 332.6.7 BIOTRANSFORMATION AND DRUG ACTION 34REFERENCES 343 HOW OXIDATIVE SYSTEMS METABOLISE SUBSTRATES 373.1 INTRODUCTION 373.2 CAPTURE OF LIPOPHILIC MOLECULES 373.3 CYTOCHROME P450S: NOMENCLATURE AND METHODS OF STUDY 383.3.1 CLASSIFICATION 383.3.2 METHODS OF ANALYSIS 403.3.3 CYP KEY FEATURES AND CAPABILITIES 423.4 CYPS: MAIN AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES 443.4.1 GENERAL STRUCTURE 443.4.2 HAEM MOIETY 443.4.3 CYP FLEXIBLE REGIONS 453.4.4 SUBSTRATE BINDING IN CYPS 463.4.5 HOMOTROPIC BINDING IN CYPS 473.4.6 HETEROTROPIC BINDING IN CYPS 493.4.7 CYP COMPLEX FORMATION 503.4.8 CYP REDOX PARTNERS (I): P450 OXIDOREDUCTASE (POR) 503.4.9 CYP REDOX PARTNERS (II): CYTOCHROME B5 523.5 HUMAN CYP FAMILIES AND THEIR REGULATION 543.5.1 CYP REGULATION: LIFESPAN 553.5.2 CYP REGULATION: TRANSCRIPTIONAL 563.5.3 CYP REGULATION: POST?TRANSLATIONAL 583.6 MAIN HUMAN CYP FAMILIES 593.6.1 CYP1A SERIES 593.6.2 CYP2 SERIES 613.6.3 CYP3A SERIES 693.7 CYTOCHROME P450 CATALYTIC CYCLE 713.7.1 SUBSTRATE BINDING 723.7.2 OXYGEN BINDING 723.7.3 OXYGEN SCISSION (SPLITTING) 743.7.4 INSERTION OF OXYGEN INTO SUBSTRATE 753.7.5 RELEASE OF PRODUCT 753.7.6 REDUCTIONS 763.8 FLAVIN MONOOXYGENASES (FMOS) 763.8.1 INTRODUCTION 763.8.2 STRUCTURE 773.8.3 MECHANISM OF CATALYSIS 783.8.4 VARIATION AND EXPRESSION 803.8.5 FMOS IN DRUG DEVELOPMENT 803.9 HOW CYP ISOFORMS OPERATE IN VIVO 813.9.1 ILLUSTRATIVE USE OF STRUCTURES 823.9.2 PRIMARY PURPOSES OF CYPS 823.9.3 ROLE OF OXIDATION 833.9.4 SUMMARY OF CYP OPERATIONS 843.10 AROMATIC RING HYDROXYLATION 843.10.1 NATURE OF AROMATICS 843.10.2 OXIDATION OF BENZENE 853.11 ALKYL OXIDATIONS 863.11.1 SATURATED ALKYL GROUPS 863.11.2 UNSATURATED ALKYL GROUPS 873.11.3 PATHWAYS OF ALKYL METABOLISM 893.12 REARRANGEMENT REACTIONS 903.12.1 DEALKYLATIONS 903.12.2 DEAMINATIONS 933.12.3 DEHALOGENATIONS 943.13 OTHER OXIDATION PROCESSES 943.13.1 PRIMARY AMINE OXIDATIONS 943.13.2 OXIDATION OF ALCOHOL AND ALDEHYDES 963.13.3 MONOAMINE OXIDASE (MAO) 963.14 CONTROL OF CYP METABOLIC FUNCTION 97REFERENCES 974 INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME P450 SYSTEMS 1094.1 INTRODUCTION 1094.1.1 HOW LIVING SYSTEMS SELF?REGULATE: OVERVIEW 1094.1.2 SELF?REGULATION IN DRUG METABOLISM 1124.1.3 SELF?REGULATORY RESPONSES TO DRUGS: SUMMARY 1174.2 CAUSES OF ACCELERATED CLEARANCE 1174.3 ENZYME INDUCTION 1184.3.1 TYPES OF INDUCERS 1184.3.2 COMMON FEATURES OF INDUCERS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE 1204.4 MECHANISMS OF ENZYME INDUCTION 1214.4.1 INTRODUCTION 1214.4.2 CYPS 1A1/1A2 AND 1B1 INDUCTION 1224.4.3 CYP 2B6 2C8/2C9/C19 AND 3A4 INDUCTION 1264.4.4 CYP 2E1 INDUCTION 1384.4.5 CYP2D6 1404.4.6 REVERSAL OF INDUCTION 1414.4.7 CELL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AND INDUCTION: P?GLYCOPROTEIN 1434.4.8 INDUCTION PROCESSES: SUMMARY 1484.5 INDUCTION: GENERAL CLINICAL ASPECTS 1494.5.1 INTRODUCTION 1494.5.2 ANTI?EPILEPTIC AGENTS 1504.5.3 OTC (OVER THE COUNTER) AND ONLINE HERBAL PREPARATIONS 1554.5.4 ANTICOAGULANT DRUGS 1584.5.5 ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES/STEROIDS 1604.5.6 ANTIVIRAL/ANTIBIOTIC DRUGS 1614.5.7 ANTICANCER DRUGS 1634.6 INDUCTION: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 1654.7 INDUCTION VS. INHIBITION: WHICH 'WINS'? 1654.8 INDUCTION: LONG?TERM IMPACT 166REFERENCES 1675 CYTOCHROME P450 INHIBITION 1835.1 INTRODUCTION 1835.2 INHIBITION OF METABOLISM: GENERAL ASPECTS 1865.3 MECHANISMS OF REVERSIBLE INHIBITION 1875.3.1 INTRODUCTION 1875.3.2 COMPETITIVE INHIBITION 1885.3.3 NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITION 1955.3.4 UNCOMPETITIVE INHIBITION 1965.4 MECHANISMS OF IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITION 1965.4.1 INTRODUCTION 1965.4.2 MECHANISM?BASED QUASI?IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITORS 1985.4.3 MECHANISM?BASED IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITORS 1985.5 CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITION 2005.5.1 INTRODUCTION 2005.5.2 QUASI?IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITORS: THE SSRIS 2015.5.3 MECHANISM?BASED INHIBITORS: GRAPEFRUIT JUICE 2135.5.4 MECHANISM?BASED INHIBITORS: OTHER JUICE PRODUCTS 2165.5.5 OTC HERBAL REMEDY INHIBITORS 2185.6 CELL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AND INHIBITION 2205.6.1 UPTAKE (INFLUX) TRANSPORTERS: OATPS 2205.6.2 EFFLUX TRANSPORTERS: P?GLYCOPROTEIN (P?GP) 2225.7 MAJOR CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF INHIBITION OF DRUG CLEARANCE 2265.7.1 INTRODUCTION 2265.7.2 TORSADES DE POINTES (TDP) 2275.7.3 SEDATIVE EFFECTS 2325.7.4 MUSCLE DAMAGE (RHABDOMYOLYSIS) 2335.7.5 EXCESSIVE HYPOTENSION 2345.7.6 ERGOTISM 2355.7.7 EXCESSIVE ANTICOAGULATION 2355.8 USE OF INHIBITORS FOR POSITIVE CLINICAL INTERVENTION 2365.8.1 INTRODUCTION 2365.8.2 CYP INHIBITORS AND FEMALE HORMONE?DEPENDENT TUMOURS 2375.8.3 CYP INHIBITORS AND MALE HORMONE?DEPENDENT TUMOURS 2385.8.4 CYP INHIBITORS AND MANIPULATION OF PRESCRIPTION DRUG DISPOSITION 2395.8.5 USE OF INHIBITORS TO INCREASE DRUG EFFICACY 2415.8.6 USE OF INHIBITORS TO REDUCE TOXIC METABOLITE FORMATION 2425.8.7 USE OF INHIBITORS TO REDUCE DRUG COSTS 2455.8.8 USE OF INHIBITION IN ALCOHOLISM 2465.9 SUMMARY 246REFERENCES 2466 CONJUGATION AND TRANSPORT PROCESSES 2636.1 INTRODUCTION 2636.2 GLUCURONIDATION 2656.2.1 UGTS 2656.2.2 UGT MODE OF OPERATION 2666.2.3 UGT ISOFORMS 2686.2.4 UGTS AND BILIRUBIN 2716.2.5 UGTS AND BILE ACIDS 2726.2.6 ROLE OF GLUCURONIDATION IN DRUG CLEARANCE 2736.2.7 TYPES OF GLUCURONIDES FORMED 2746.2.8 CONTROL OF UGTS 2766.2.9 INDUCTION OF UGTS: CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES 2786.2.10 UGT INHIBITION: BILIRUBIN METABOLISM 2806.2.11 UGT INHIBITION: DRUG CLEARANCE 2816.2.12 MICROBIOME AND DRUG METABOLISM: PASSENGERS OR CREW? 2826.3 SULPHONATION 2856.3.1 INTRODUCTION 2856.3.2 SULT STRUCTURE RELATED TO CATALYTIC OPERATION 2876.3.3 CONTROL OF SULT ENZYMES 2896.3.4 SULTS AND CANCER 2896.4 THE GSH SYSTEM 2906.4.1 INTRODUCTION 2906.4.2 GSH SYSTEM MAINTENANCE 2926.5 GLUTATHIONE S?TRANSFERASES 2936.5.1 STRUCTURE AND LOCATION 2936.5.2 MODE OF OPERATION 2956.5.3 GST CLASSES 2966.5.4 CONTROL OF GSTS: OVERVIEW 3006.5.5 CONTROL OF GSTS AND REACTIVE SPECIES 3016.5.6 CONTROL OF GSTS: THE NRF2 SYSTEM 3026.6 EPOXIDE HYDROLASES 3046.6.1 NATURE OF EPOXIDES 3046.6.2 EPOXIDE HYDROLASES 3046.6.3 EPOXIDE HYDROLASES: STRUCTURE, MECHANISMS OF ACTION, AND REGULATION 3066.7 ACETYLATION 3076.8 METHYLATION 3096.9 ESTERASES/AMIDASES 3116.10 AMINO ACID CONJUGATION (MAINLY GLYCINE) 3146.11 PHASE III TRANSPORT PROCESSES 3156.11.1 INTRODUCTION 3156.11.2 ABC EFFLUX TRANSPORTERS 3156.11.3 RLIP76 3206.12 BIOTRANSFORMATION: INTEGRATION OF PROCESSES 320REFERENCES 3227 FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG METABOLISM 3317.1 INTRODUCTION 3317.2 GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS 3327.2.1 INTRODUCTION 3327.2.2 CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS 3367.2.3 GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN CYP SYSTEMS 3417.2.4 GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN NONCONJUGATIVE SYSTEMS 3697.2.5 CONJUGATIVE POLYMORPHISMS: ACETYLATION 3747.2.6 CONJUGATIVE POLYMORPHISMS: METHYLATION 3817.2.7 CONJUGATIVE POLYMORPHISMS: UGT 1A1 3857.2.8 CONJUGATIVE POLYMORPHISMS: SULPHONATION 3887.2.9 OTHER CONJUGATIVE POLYMORPHISMS: GLUTATHIONE S?TRANSFERASES 3897.2.10 TRANSPORTER POLYMORPHISMS 3907.2.11 POLYMORPHISM DETECTION: CLINICAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES 3927.3 EFFECTS OF AGE ON DRUG METABOLISM 3957.3.1 THE ELDERLY 3957.3.2 DRUG CLEARANCE IN NEONATES AND CHILDREN 3987.4 EFFECTS OF DIET ON DRUG METABOLISM 4017.4.1 POLYPHENOLS 4017.4.2 BARBECUED MEAT 4027.4.3 CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES 4037.4.4 OTHER VEGETABLE EFFECTS ON METABOLISM 4047.4.5 CAFFEINE 4047.4.6 DIET: GENERAL EFFECTS 4057.5 GENDER EFFECTS 4067.6 SMOKING 4097.7 EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON DRUG METABOLISM 4127.7.1 CONTEXT OF ETHANOL USAGE 4127.7.2 ETHANOL METABOLISM 4137.7.3 ETHANOL AND INHIBITORS OF ALDH 4147.7.4 MILD ETHANOL USAGE AND DRUG CLEARANCE 4147.7.5 HEAVY ETHANOL USAGE AND PARACETAMOL 4157.7.6 ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE 4167.7.7 EFFECTS OF CIRRHOSIS ON DRUG CLEARANCE 4207.8 ARTIFICIAL LIVERS 4227.9 EFFECTS OF DISEASE ON DRUG METABOLISM 4247.10 SUMMARY 425REFERENCES 4268 ROLE OF METABOLISM IN DRUG TOXICITY 4478.1 ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS: DEFINITIONS 4478.2 PREDICTABLE DRUG ADVERSE EFFECTS: TYPE A 4488.2.1 INTENSIFICATION OF PHARMACOLOGIC EFFECT: TYPE A1 4488.2.2 OFF?TARGET REVERSIBLE EFFECTS AND METHAEMOGLOBIN FORMATION: TYPE A2 4498.2.3 PREDICTABLE OVERDOSE TOXICITY: TYPE A3 4558.3 UNPREDICTABLE DRUG ADVERSE EFFECTS: TYPE B 4708.3.1 IDIOSYNCRATIC AND OVERDOSE TOXICITY: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES 4708.3.2 TYPE B1 NECROSIS: TROGLITAZONE 4718.3.3 TYPE B1 NECROSIS: TROVAFLOXACIN 4738.3.4 TYPE B2 REACTIONS: IMMUNOTOXICITY 4768.4 NATURE OF DRUG?MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSES 4898.4.1 ANAPHYLAXIS 4898.4.2 DRESS/ANTICONVULSANT HYPERSENSITIVITY SYNDROME (AHS) 4918.4.3 STEVENS?JOHNSON SYNDROME (SJS) AND TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS (TEN) 4928.4.4 BLOOD DYSCRASIAS 4948.4.5 PREDICTION OF IDIOSYNCRATIC REACTIONS 4998.5 TYPE B3 REACTIONS: ROLE OF METABOLISM IN CANCER 5008.5.1 SOURCES OF RISKS OF MALIGNANCY 5008.5.2 RISKS OF MALIGNANCY AND DRUG DEVELOPMENT 5018.5.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENICITY RISKS 5028.5.4 OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS 5038.5.5 DIETARY CARCINOGENS: ACRYLAMIDE 5138.5.6 DIETARY CARCINOGENS: AFLATOXINS 5168.6 SUMMARY OF BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL TOXICITY 520REFERENCES 521APPENDIX A DRUG METABOLISM IN DRUG DISCOVERY 531A.1 THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 531A.2 DRUG DESIGN AND BIOTRANSFORMATION: STRATEGIES 533A.3 ANIMAL AND HUMAN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS: STRATEGIES 537A.4 IN VITRO METABOLISM PLATFORMS AND METHODS 539A.4.1 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 539A.4.2 HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES 541A.4.3 HETEROLOGOUS RECOMBINANT SYSTEMS 542A.4.4 LIVER SLICES 543A.4.5 HUMAN HEPATOCYTES 543A.5 ANIMAL MODEL DEVELOPMENTS IN DRUG METABOLISM 550A.5.1 INTRODUCTION 550A.5.2 GENETIC MODIFICATION OF ANIMAL MODELS 551A.5.3 'HUMANIZED' MICE 552A.6 TOXICOLOGICAL ASSAYS 553A.6.1 AIMS 553A.6.2 CELL VIABILITY ASSAYS 554A.6.3 'ONE COMPARTMENT' CELL MODELS 555A.6.4 'TWO COMPARTMENT' MODELS 555A.6.5 DNA AND CHROMOSOMAL TOXICITY ASSAYS 556A.6.6 THE AMES TEST 556A.6.7 COMET ASSAY 557A.6.8 MICRONUCLEUS TEST 557A.6.9 TOXICOLOGY IN DRUG DISCOVERY 558A.7 IN SILICO APPROACHES 561A.8 SUMMARY 564REFERENCES 565APPENDIX B METABOLISM OF MAJOR ILLICIT DRUGS 571B.1 INTRODUCTION 571B.2 OPIATES 572B.3 COCAINE 582B.4 HALLUCINOGENS 585B.5 AMPHETAMINE DERIVATIVES 591B.6 CANNABIS 603B.7 DISSOCIATIVE ANAESTHETICS 609B.8 CHARLIE DON'T SURF! 616REFERENCES 617APPENDIX C EXAMINATION TECHNIQUES 627C.1 INTRODUCTION 627C.2 A FIRST?CLASS ANSWER 627C.3 PREPARATION 629C.4 THE DAY OF RECKONING 632C.5 FOREIGN STUDENTS 633APPENDIX D SUMMARY OF MAJOR CYP ISOFORMS AND THEIR SUBSTRATES, INHIBITORS, AND INDUCERS 635INDEX 639

PROVIDES A TIMELY UPDATE TO A KEY TEXTBOOK ON HUMAN DRUG METABOLISM THE THIRD EDITION OF THIS COMPREHENSIVE BOOK COVERS BASIC CONCEPTS OF TEACHING DRUG METABOLISM, STARTING FROM EXTREME CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES TO SYSTEMS AND MECHANISMS AND TOXICITY. IT PROVIDES AN INVALUABLE INTRODUCTION TO THE CORE AREAS OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXAMINES RECENT PROGRESS AND ADVANCES IN THIS FAST MOVING FIELD AND ITS CLINICAL IMPACT. HUMAN DRUG METABOLISM, 3RD EDITION BEGINS BY COVERING BASIC CONCEPTS SUCH AS CLEARANCE AND BIOAVAILABILITY, AND LOOKS AT THE EVOLUTION OF BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND HOW DRUGS FIT INTO THIS CAREFULLY MANAGED BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT. MORE INFORMATION ON HOW CYTOCHROME P450S FUNCTION AND HOW THEY ARE MODULATED AT THE SUB-CELLULAR LEVEL IS OFFERED IN THIS NEW EDITION. THE BOOK ALSO INTRODUCES HELPFUL CONCEPTS FOR THOSE STRUGGLING WITH THE RELATIONSHIP OF PHARMACOLOGY TO PHYSIOLOGY, AS WELL AS THE INHIBITION OF BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL ACTIVITY. RECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF A NUMBER OF OTHER METABOLIZING SYSTEMS ARE COVERED, INCLUDING GLUCURONIDATION AND SULPHATION, ALONG WITH THE MAIN DRUG TRANSPORTERS. ALSO, THEMES FROM THE LAST EDITION ARE DEVELOPED IN AN ATTEMPT TO CHART THE PROGRESS OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE FROM CONCEPTS TOWARDS PRACTICAL INCLUSION IN ROUTINE THERAPEUTICS. THE LAST CHAPTER FOCUSES ON OUR UNDERSTANDING OF HOW AND WHY DRUGS INJURE US, BOTH IN PREDICTABLE AND UNPREDICTABLE WAYS. APPENDIX A HIGHLIGHTS SOME PRACTICAL APPROACHES EMPLOYED IN BOTH DRUG METABOLISM RESEARCH AND DRUG DISCOVERY, WHILST APPENDIX B OUTLINES THE METABOLISM OF SOME DRUGS OF ABUSE. APPENDIX C ADVISES ON FORMAL EXAMINATION PREPARATION AND APPENDIX D LISTS SOME SUBSTRATES, INDUCERS AND INHIBITORS OF THE MAJOR HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S. FULLY UPDATED TO REFLECT ADVANCES IN THE SCIENTIFIC FIELD OF DRUG METABOLISM AND ITS CLINICAL IMPACTREFLECTS REFINEMENTS IN THE AUTHOR'S TEACHING METHOD, PARTICULARLY WITH RESPECT TO HELPING STUDENTS UNDERSTAND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND HOW THEY OPERATEILLUSTRATES THE GROWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG METABOLISM AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINEINCLUDES RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DRUG DISCOVERY, GENOMICS, AND STEM CELL TECHNOLOGIES HUMAN DRUG METABOLISM, 3RD EDITION IS AN EXCELLENT BOOK FOR ADVANCED UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDENTS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACY, AND TOXICOLOGY. IT WILL ALSO APPEAL TO PROFESSIONALS INTERESTED IN AN INTRODUCTION TO THIS FIELD, OR WHO WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THESE BENCH-TO-BEDSIDE TOPICS TO APPLY IT TO THEIR PRACTICE.

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