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EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS

9781119517993 ::  EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS
ISBN:

9781119517993

EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Edició:
Pàgines:432
Idioma:INGLES
P.V.P.: 155,38 € + 4% IVA = 161,59 €
Dto 5% Estalvies 8,08 €
Import final iva incl. 153,51 €
EN STOCK / ENVIAMENT EN 8-10 DIAS

ABOUT THE EDITORCONTRIBUTORSPREFACE1. EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS FOR HYDROTREATING OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS1.1. INTRODUCTION1.2. TYPE OF OPERATION1.3. SELECTION OF THE REACTOR1.4. EXPERIMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE OPERATION OF THE LABORATORY REACTOR1.5. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR CONFIGURATION1.5.1. CONFIGURATION FOR BATCH AND SEMI-BATCH OPERATION MODES1.5.2. CONFIGURATION FOR CONTINUOUS OPERATION1.6. ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTS1.6.1. GASES1.6.2. LIQUIDS1.7. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES2. EXPERIMENTATION IN GLASS REACTOR WITH MODEL COMPOUNDS2.1. INTRODUCTION2.2. GLASS MICROREACTOR DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTATION2.2.1. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR CATALYST EVALUATION2.2.2. GAS FLOW SECTION: FURNACE AND HEATING CONTROL2.2.3. FEED CONTROL SECTION: GAS AND FEED FLOW MEASUREMENTS SECTION2.2.4. DETERMINATION OF MOLAR CONCENTRATION OF MODEL MOLECULES BEFORE REACTION2.2.5. CALCULATION OF PARTIAL PRESSURE OF THIOPHENE AT GIVEN CONDITIONS2.2.6. REACTOR AND FURNACE SECTION2.2.7. HEATING LINES (AFTER REACTOR)2.2.8. ANALYSIS SECTION (FID AND TCD)2.3.1. REACTOR MODEL CONSIDERATIONS2.3.2. DIFFUSION LIMITATIONS (HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER)2.3.3. ESTIMATION OF OVERALL REACTOR PERFORMANCE/KINETIC STUDIES (ACTIVATION ENERGY)2.3.4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR HYDRODESULFURIZATION THIOPHENE TESTING AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE2.4. MODEL COMPOUND TESTING FOCUSED ON SUPPORT PROPERTIES2.5. MODEL COMPOUNDS HYDROTREATING SETUP2.6. CATALYSTS COMPOSITION AND THEIR ROLE TO CATALYTIC ACTIVITY2.7. CHEMISORPTION AND MEASUREMENT OF CATALYTIC SITES EXPERIMENTS2.7.1. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNOLOGY2.7.2. LOW TEMPERATURES OXYGEN CHEMISORPTION (LTOC) EXPERIMENTS2.8. RELATION BETWEEN ACTIVITY AND CHARACTERIZATION2.9. CALCULATION OF KINETICS RATE AND INTRINSIC ACTIVITY (TURNOVER FREQUENCY, TOF)2.10. ADDITIONAL DATA OF CATALYTIC ACTIVITY IN GLASS REACTOR2.11. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES3. EXPERIMENTATION WITH MODEL MOLECULES IN BATCH REACTOR3.1. INTRODUCTION3.2. CONSIDERATIONS IN HETEROGENEOUS CATALYTIC REACTIONS3.2.1. INTEGRAL METHOD3.2.2. DIFFERENTIAL METHOD3.2.3. EFFECT OF THE TEMPERATURE3.2.4. MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS3.3. CATALYTIC REACTION RUNNING METHODOLOGY3.3.1. CATALYST PARTICLE SIZE3.3.2. SULFIDING STEP3.3.3. REACTION TEST3.3.4. ANALYSIS OF THE REACTION SAMPLES3.4. EXAMPLE OF HDS OF MODEL COMPOUND3.4.1. REACTION3.4.2. ANALYSIS OF REACTION SAMPLES3.4.3. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY3.4.4. REACTION NETWORK3.4.5. PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION3.4.6. SELECTIVITY ANALYSIS3.4.7. DEEP KINETIC ANALYSIS3.4.8. ANALYSIS OF MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS3.5. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES4. EXPERIMENTATION IN BATCH REACTOR WITH PETROLEUM DISTILLATES4.1. INTRODUCTION4.2. BATCH REACTOR4.2.1. MAIN FEATURES4.2.2. USE OF BATCH REACTOR FOR HYDROTREATING4.2.3. MODES OF OPERATION4.2.4. DATA COLLECTION4.2.5. ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA4.2.6. PROFILES IN THE REACTOR4.3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO DETERMINE EFFECTIVENESS FACTORS OF CATALYST USING PETROLEUM DISTILLATE4.3.1. EXPERIMENTAL4.3.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.4. ACTIVATION ENERGIES OF PETROLEUM DISTILLATES DURING HYDRODESULFURIZATION REACTIONS4.4.1. EXPERIMENTAL4.4.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.4.3. EFFECT OF FEED PROPERTIES ON KINETIC PARAMETERS4.5. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES5. EXPERIMENTATION WITH HEAVY OIL IN BATCH REACTOR5.1. INTRODUCTION5.2. CATALYST USED IN BATCH REACTOR5.3. ACTIVATION OF HYDROTREATING CATALYST5.4. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP FOR A BATCH REACTOR5.5. SOME RESULTS OBTAINED IN BATCH REACTOR5.6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BATCH REACTOR5.7. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES6. EXPERIMENTATION IN SMALL-SCALE CONTINUOUS FIXED-BED TUBULAR REACTOR6.1. INTRODUCTION6.2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP6.2.1. SMALL-SCALE UNIT6.2.2. CATALYST LOADING6.2.3. CATALYST ACTIVATION6.2.4. UNLOADING OF CATALYST6.2.5. CHARACTERIZATION OF FEED AND LIQUID PRODUCTS6.2.6. CHARACTERIZATION OF SUPPORT AND FRESH AND SPENT CATALYSTS6.3. EFFECT OF DILUENT COMPOSITION6.3.1. EXPERIMENTAL6.3.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION6.3.3. CONCLUSIONS6.4. EFFECT OF SUPPORT6.4.1. SYNTHESIS OF SUPPORTS6.4.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION6.4.3. CONCLUSIONS6.5. EFFECT OF SUPPORT MODIFICATION6.5.1. SYNTHESIS OF SUPPORTS6.5.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION6.5.3. CONCLUSIONS6.6. EFFECT OF ADITIVE INCORPORATION METHOD6.6.1. FEED AND SHYNTHESIS OF SUPPORTS AND CATALYSTS6.6.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION6.6.3. CONCLUSIONS6.7. EFFECT OF THE INCORPORATION METHOD OF TI6.7.1. FEED AND SYNTHESIS OF SUPPORTS AND CATALYSTS6.7.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION6.7.3. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES7. EXPERIMENTATION IN MEDIUM-SCALE CONTINUOUS FIXED-BED TUBULAR REACTOR7.1. INTRODUCTION7.2. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE7.2.1. FEEDSTOCK AND CHARACTERIZATION7.2.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE PILOT PLANT7.3. MASS TRANSFER LIMITATIONS IN TBR7.3.1. MATERIALS7.3.2. CATALYST AND ACTIVATION PROCEDURE7.3.3. REACTION CONDITIONS7.3.4. RESULTS7.3.5. CONCLUSIONS7.4. HYDROTREATING OF HEAVY CRUDE OIL7.4.1. MATERIALS7.4.2. OPERATING CONDITIONS7.4.3. ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTS7.4.4. RESULTS7.4.5. CONCLUSIONS7.5. HYDRODEMETALLIZATION OF HEAVY CRUDE OIL WITH NI-MO/ALUMINA CATALYSTS7.5.1. MATERIALS7.5.2. EXPERIMENTAL7.5.3. RESULTS7.5.4. CONCLUSIONS7.6. HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF MIDDLE DISTILLATES7.6.1. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION7.6.2. RESULTS7.6.3. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES8. EXPERIMENTATION IN LARGE-SCALE CONTINUOUS FIXED-BED TUBULAR REACTOR8.1 INTRODUCTION8.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE PILOT PLANT UNIT8.3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION8.3.1 HDT OF HYDROCRACKED RESIDUE FROM A 16 DEGREESAPI CRUDE8.3.2 HYDROTREATING OF HIGHLY AROMATIC PETROLEUM DISTILLATES8.3.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF SPENT CATALYST FROM RESIDUE HYDROTREATING8.3.4 REACTION KINETICS FOR HYDROTREATING OF RESIDUE8.4. CONCLUSIONSNOMENCLATUREREFERENCES9. EXPERIMENTATION IN LARGE-SCALE CONTINUOUS EBULLATED-BED REACTOR9.1. INTRODUCTION9.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EBULLATED BED REACTOR9.1.2. PARTS OF THE EBULLATED BED REACTOR9.1.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES9.1.4. CATALYST9.1.5. SEDIMENT FORMATION9.2. EXPERIMENTAL9.2.1. EBR EXPERIMENTAL UNIT9.2.2. CATALYST LOADING9.2.3 CATALYST BED EXPANSION9.2.4 OPERATING CONDITIONS9.2.5. STARTING-UP, ADJUSTMENT AND STABILIZATION OF CONDITIONS9.2.6. CATALYST ACTIVATION9.3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION9.3.1. OPERATING CONDITIONS9.3.2. REAL CONVERSION AND YIELDS9.3.3. EFFECT OF PRESSURE9.3.4. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN PURITY9.3.5. EFFECT OF LHSV9.3.6. HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION9.4. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES10. EXPERIMENTATION IN CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR10.1. INTRODUCTION10.2. EXPERIMENTS OF HYDROCRACKING-HYDROTREATING IN CSTR10.2.1. HYDROCRACKING OF AN ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE (343 DEGREESC+)10.2.2. HYDROCRACKING OF AN ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE (312 DEGREESC+)10.2.3. PARALLEL THERMAL AND CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING OF HEAVY OIL10.2.4. DEACTIVATION OF A HYDROTREATING CATALYST IN A BENCH-SCALE CSTR10.3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION10.3.1. HYDROCRACKING OF AN ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE (343 DEGREESC+)10.3.2. HYDROCRACKING OF AN ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE (312 DEGREESC+)10.3.3. PARALLEL THERMAL AND CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING OF HEAVY OIL10.3.4. DEACTIVATION OF A HYDROTREATING CATALYST IN A BENCH-SCALE CSTR10.4. CONCLUSIONSNOMENCLATUREREFERENCES

PRESENTS DETAILED INFORMATION AND STUDY CASES ON EXPERIMENTS ON HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS FOR THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRYCATALYTIC HYDROTREATING (HDT) IS A PROCESS USED IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY FOR UPGRADING HYDROCARBON STREAMS-REMOVING IMPURITIES, ELIMINATING METALS, CONVERTING ASPHALTENE MOLECULES, AND HYDROCRACKING HEAVY FRACTIONS. THE MAJOR APPLICATIONS OF HDT IN REFINERY OPERATIONS INCLUDE FEED PRETREATMENT FOR CONVERSION PROCESSES, POST-HYDROTREATING DISTILLATES, AND UPGRADING HEAVY CRUDE OILS. DESIGNING HDT PROCESSES AND CATALYSTS FOR SUCCESSFUL COMMERCIAL APPLICATION REQUIRES EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES BASED ON APPROPRIATE METHODOLOGIES. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS PROVIDES DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF EXPERIMENTS IN DIFFERENT REACTION SCALES FOR STUDYING THE HYDROTREATING OF VARIOUS PETROLEUM DISTILLATES. EMPHASIZING STEP-BY-STEP METHODOLOGIES IN EACH LEVEL OF EXPERIMENTATION, THIS COMPREHENSIVE VOLUME PRESENTS NUMEROUS EXAMPLES OF EVALUATION METHODS, OPERATING CONDITIONS, REACTOR AND CATALYST TYPES, AND PROCESS CONFIGURATIONS. IN-DEPTH CHAPTERS DESCRIBE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE, ANALYTICAL METHODS, CALCULATIONS, TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CATALYST AND LIQUID PRODUCTS, AND INTERPRETATION OF EXPERIMENT DATA AND RESULTS. THE TEXT DESCRIBES EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EXPERIMENTATION-GLASS REACTOR, BATCH REACTOR, CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR, AND MULTIPLE SCALES OF TUBULAR REACTORS-USING MODEL COMPOUNDS, MIDDLE DISTILLATES AND HEAVY OIL. THIS AUTHORITATIVE VOLUME:INTRODUCES EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS USED FOR CONDUCTING RESEARCH STUDIES, SUCH AS TYPE OF OPERATION, SELECTION OF REACTOR, AND ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTSFEATURES EXAMPLES FOCUSED ON THE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT REACTION PARAMETERS AND CATALYSTS WITH A VARIETY OF PETROLEUM FEEDSTOCKSPROVIDES EXPERIMENTAL DATA COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT REACTION SCALESINCLUDES EXPERIMENTS FOR DETERMINING MASS TRANSFER LIMITATIONS AND DEVIATION FROM IDEALITY OF FLOW PATTERNPRESENTS CONTRIBUTIONS FROM LEADING SCIENTISTS AND RESEARCHERS IN THE FIELD OF PETROLEUM REFINING EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS IS AN INDISPENSABLE REFERENCE FOR RESEARCHERS AND PROFESSIONALS WORKING IN THE AREA OF CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING, AS WELL AS AN IDEAL TEXTBOOK FOR COURSES IN FIELDS SUCH AS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, PETROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY.

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