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ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

PRINCIPLES, BEST PRACTICES, AND CASE STUDIES

9781119538592 ::  ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
ISBN:

9781119538592

Col·lecció:CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: A SERIES OF MONOGRAPHS ON ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
EditorialJOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Edició:
Pàgines:352
Idioma:INGLES
P.V.P.: 123,17 € + 4% IVA = 128,10 €
Dto 5% Estalvies 6,41 €
Import final iva incl. 121,70 €
EN STOCK / ENVIAMENT EN 8-10 DIAS

PREFACE IX1. BASIC ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES 11.1 OVERVIEW 21.2 BASIC CONCEPTS 41.2.1 VOLT DEFINED 71.2.2 CURRENT DEFINED 71.2.3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION 81.2.4 CURRENT AND FARADAY'S LAW 81.2.5 POTENTIAL, WORK, AND GIBBS' FREE ENERGY CHANGE 91.2.6 METHODS BASED ON VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT VERSUS CURRENT MEASUREMENT 101.3 ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS 101.3.1 ELECTRODES 101.3.2 CELL RESISTANCE 121.3.3 SUPPORTING ELECTROLYTE 131.4 THE ELECTRIFIED INTERFACE OR ELECTRICAL DOUBLE LAYER 141.4.1 STRUCTURE OF THE DOUBLE LAYER 141.4.2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOUBLE LAYER CHARGE AND THE POTENTIAL AT THE ELECTRODE INTERFACE 201.5 CONDUCTANCE 221.6 MASS TRANSPORT BY CONVECTION AND DIFFUSION 241.7 LIQUID JUNCTION POTENTIALS 26PROBLEMS 29REFERENCES 292. POTENTIOMETRY OF OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES 312.1 OVERVIEW 312.2 MEASURING "OPEN CIRCUIT" POTENTIALS 332.3 SOLUTION REDOX POTENTIAL 342.3.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CHARGE SEPARATION 352.3.2 THE NERNST EQUATION 362.3.3 FORMAL POTENTIAL 382.3.4 ACTIVE METAL INDICATOR ELECTRODES 412.3.5 REDOX TITRATIONS 522.3.6 OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL (ORP) OR EH 552.3.7 ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF REDOX MEASUREMENTS 57PROBLEMS 64REFERENCES 663. POTENTIOMETRY OF ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES 693.1 OVERVIEW 693.2 LIQUID MEMBRANE DEVICES 733.2.1 SELECTIVE ACCUMULATION OF IONS INSIDE AN ORGANIC LIQUID 733.2.2 THEORY OF MEMBRANE POTENTIALS 773.2.3 LIQUID MEMBRANE IONOPHORES 803.3 GLASS MEMBRANE SENSORS 823.3.1 HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GLASS SENSOR OF PH 823.3.2 GLASS STRUCTURE AND SENSOR PROPERTIES 833.3.3 SELECTIVE ION EXCHANGE MODEL 873.3.4 THE COMBINATION PH ELECTRODE 883.3.5 GAS-SENSING ELECTRODES 893.4 CRYSTALLINE MEMBRANE ELECTRODES 933.5 CALIBRATION CURVES AND DETECTION LIMITS 963.6 A REVOLUTIONARY IMPROVEMENT IN DETECTION LIMITS 1003.7 MORE RECENT ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODE INNOVATIONS 1023.7.1 THE FUNCTION OF THE INNER REFERENCE ELECTRODE 1033.7.2 ALL SOLID-STATE REFERENCE ELECTRODES 1043.7.3 ELIMINATING THE INNER REFERENCE ELECTRODE 1053.7.4 SUPER-HYDROPHOBIC MEMBRANES 1073.8 ION SELECTIVE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS (ISFETS) 1083.9 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 1113.9.1 IONIC STRENGTH BUFFERS 1113.9.2 POTENTIAL DRIFT 112PROBLEMS 112REFERENCES 1144. APPLICATIONS OF ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES 1174.1 OVERVIEW 1174.2 CASE I. AN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION 1184.2.1 WILL THE SAMPLE CONCENTRATIONS BE MEASURABLE? 1184.2.2 IONIC STRENGTH ADJUSTMENT BUFFER 1184.2.3 SAMPLE PRETREATMENT 1194.2.4 SALT BRIDGES 1204.2.5 CALIBRATION 1224.2.6 TEMPERATURE CONTROL 1234.2.7 SIGNAL DRIFT 1244.2.8 VALIDATING THE METHOD 1244.2.9 STANDARD ADDITIONS FOR POTENTIOMETRIC ANALYSIS 1274.3 CASE II. A CLINICAL APPLICATION 1304.4 CASE III. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS 1354.4.1 US EPA METHOD FOR NITRATE DETERMINATION BY ISE 1364.4.2 FIELD MEASUREMENTS 1394.5 GOOD LAB PRACTICE FOR PH ELECTRODE USE 1424.5.1 ELECTRODE MAINTENANCE 1424.5.2 STANDARD BUFFERS 1434.5.3 INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CELL POTENTIALS 1434.5.4 CALIBRATION AND DIRECT SAMPLE MEASUREMENT 1454.5.5 EVALUATING THE RESPONSE OF A PH ELECTRODE 1454.5.6 CALIBRATING A COMBINATION ELECTRODE AND PH METER 1474.5.7 LOW IONIC STRENGTH SAMPLES 1484.5.8 SAMPLES CONTAINING SOIL, FOOD, PROTEIN OR TRIS BUFFER 1484.5.9 PH TITRATIONS 1494.5.10 GRAN PLOTS 149PROBLEMS 151REFERENCES 1535. CONTROLLED POTENTIAL METHODS 1575.1 OVERVIEW 1575.2 SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECTROSCOPY AND VOLTAMMETRY 1615.3 CURRENT IS A MEASURE OF THE RATE OF THE OVERALL ELECTRODE PROCESS 1635.3.1 RATE OF ELECTRON TRANSFER 1635.3.2 THE SHAPE OF THE CURRENT/VOLTAGE CURVE 1675.3.3 RATE OF MASS TRANSPORT 1685.3.4 ELECTROCHEMICAL REVERSIBILITY 1735.3.5 VOLTAMMETRY AT STATIONARY ELECTRODES IN QUIET SOLUTIONS 1755.4 METHODS FOR AVOIDING BACKGROUND CURRENT 1865.5 WORKING ELECTRODES 1905.5.1 MERCURY ELECTRODES 1905.5.2 SOLID WORKING ELECTRODES 1915.5.3 ULTRAMICROELECTRODES 1995.5.4 FAST SCAN CV 2045.6 PULSE AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION 2075.7 STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY 2095.8 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF AMPEROMETRY 2125.8.1 FLOW-THROUGH DETECTORS 2125.8.2 DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSORS 2135.8.3 ENZYME ELECTRODES 2155.8.4 KARL FISHER METHOD FOR MOISTURE DETERMINATION 2185.9 ION TRANSFER VOLTAMMETRY 222PROBLEMS 230REFERENCES 2356. CASE STUDIES IN CONTROLLED POTENTIAL METHODS 2376.1 OVERVIEW 2376.2 CASE I. EVALUATING THE FORMAL POTENTIAL AND RELATED PARAMETERS 2386.3 CASE II. EVALUATING CATALYSTS - THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS 2426.4 CASE III. STUDYING THE OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 2466.5 CASE IV. EVALUATING CATALYSTS - KINETIC STUDIES 260REFERENCES 2687. INSTRUMENTATION 2697.1 OVERVIEW 2697.2 A BRIEF REVIEW OF PASSIVE CIRCUITS 2707.3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 2737.3.1 PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 2757.3.2 THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER 2757.3.3 CURRENT FOLLOWER OR CURRENT-TO-VOLTAGE CONVERTER 2767.3.4 INVERTER OR SIMPLE GAIN AMPLIFIER 2777.3.5 A POTENTIOSTAT FOR A THREE-ELECTRODE EXPERIMENT 2797.4 NOISE AND SHIELDING 2807.5 MAKING ELECTRODES AND REFERENCE BRIDGES 2837.5.1 VOLTAMMETRIC WORKING ELECTRODES 2837.5.2 REFERENCE ELECTRODES 284PROBLEMS 286REFERENCES 288APPENDIX A IONIC STRENGTH, ACTIVITY, AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS 289APPENDIX B THE NICOLSKY-EISENMAN EQUATION 293APPENDIX C THE HENDERSON EQUATION FOR LIQUID JUNCTION POTENTIALS 297APPENDIX D STANDARD ELECTRODE POTENTIALS FOR SOME SELECTED REDUCTION REACTIONS 303APPENDIX E THE NERNST EQUATION FROM THE CONCEPT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIAL 307SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 311INDEX 333

PROVIDES A STRONG FOUNDATION IN ELECTROCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES AND BEST PRACTICES WRITTEN FOR UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS IN CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, THIS BOOK TEACHES THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND ILLUSTRATES BEST PRACTICES THROUGH THE USE OF CASE STUDIES OF ORGANIC REACTIONS AND CATALYSIS USING VOLTAMMETRIC METHODS AND OF THE MEASUREMENT OF CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTES BY POTENTIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES. IT PROVIDES INSIGHT BEYOND THE FIELD OF ANALYSIS AS STUDENTS ADDRESS PROBLEMS ARISING IN MANY AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. THE BOOK ALSO EMPHASIZES ELECTROCHEMICAL PHENOMENA AND CONCEPTUAL MODELS TO HELP READERS UNDERSTAND THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AND THE INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS FOR COMMON POTENTIOMETRIC AND VOLTAMMETRIC METHODS. ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY: PRINCIPLES, BEST PRACTICES, AND CASE STUDIES BEGINS BY INTRODUCING SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA. IT THEN MOVES ON TO A CHAPTER THAT EXAMINES THE POTENTIOMETRY OF OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES, FOLLOWED BY ANOTHER ON THE POTENTIOMETRY OF ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES. OTHER SECTIONS LOOK AT: APPLICATIONS OF ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES; CONTROLLED POTENTIAL METHODS; CASE STUDIES IN CONTROLLED POTENTIAL METHODS; AND INSTRUMENTATION. THE BOOK ALSO FEATURES SEVERAL APPENDIXES COVERING: IONIC STRENGTH, ACTIVITY AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS; THE NICOLSKY-EISENMAN EQUATION; THE HENDERSON EQUATION FOR LIQUID JUNCTION POTENTIALS; SELECTED STANDARD ELECTRODE POTENTIALS; AND THE NERNST EQUATION DERIVATION. INTRODUCES THE PRINCIPLES OF MODERN ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS AND INSTRUMENTAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING POTENTIOMETRIC AND VOLTAMMETRIC METHODSDEVELOPS CONCEPTUAL MODELS UNDERLYING ELECTROCHEMICAL PHENOMENA AND USEFUL EQUATIONSILLUSTRATES BEST PRACTICE WITH SHORT CASE STUDIES OF ORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS USING VOLTAMMETRY AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS WITH ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODESOFFERS INSTRUCTORS THE OPPORTUNITY TO SELECT FOCUS AREAS AND TAILOR THE BOOK TO THEIR COURSE BY PROVIDING A COLLECTION OF SHORTER TEXTS, EACH DEDICATED TO A SINGLE FIELDINTENDED AS ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES FOR TEACHING UNDERGRADUATE COURSES IN INSTRUMENTAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY: PRINCIPLES, BEST PRACTICES, AND CASE STUDIES IS AN IDEAL TEXTBOOK FOR UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS IN CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TAKING INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS COURSES. IT WOULD ALSO BENEFIT PROFESSIONAL CHEMISTS WHO NEED AN INTRODUCTION TO POTENTIOMETRY OR VOLTAMMETRY.

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